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path: root/src/jit/codegenxarch.cpp
blob: a41c28695bd6e09b2308a6a1f9fe9e013535eade (plain)
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// Licensed to the .NET Foundation under one or more agreements.
// The .NET Foundation licenses this file to you under the MIT license.
// See the LICENSE file in the project root for more information.

/*XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XX                                                                           XX
XX                        Amd64/x86 Code Generator                           XX
XX                                                                           XX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
*/
#include "jitpch.h"
#ifdef _MSC_VER
#pragma hdrstop
#endif

#ifndef LEGACY_BACKEND // This file is ONLY used for the RyuJIT backend that uses the linear scan register allocator.

#ifdef _TARGET_XARCH_
#include "emit.h"
#include "codegen.h"
#include "lower.h"
#include "gcinfo.h"
#include "gcinfoencoder.h"

// Get the register assigned to the given node

regNumber CodeGenInterface::genGetAssignedReg(GenTreePtr tree)
{
    return tree->gtRegNum;
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genSpillVar: Spill a local variable
//
// Arguments:
//    tree      - the lclVar node for the variable being spilled
//
// Return Value:
//    None.
//
// Assumptions:
//    The lclVar must be a register candidate (lvRegCandidate)

void CodeGen::genSpillVar(GenTreePtr tree)
{
    unsigned   varNum = tree->gtLclVarCommon.gtLclNum;
    LclVarDsc* varDsc = &(compiler->lvaTable[varNum]);

    assert(varDsc->lvIsRegCandidate());

    // We don't actually need to spill if it is already living in memory
    bool needsSpill = ((tree->gtFlags & GTF_VAR_DEF) == 0 && varDsc->lvIsInReg());
    if (needsSpill)
    {
        var_types lclTyp = varDsc->TypeGet();
        if (varDsc->lvNormalizeOnStore())
        {
            lclTyp = genActualType(lclTyp);
        }
        emitAttr size = emitTypeSize(lclTyp);

        bool restoreRegVar = false;
        if (tree->gtOper == GT_REG_VAR)
        {
            tree->SetOper(GT_LCL_VAR);
            restoreRegVar = true;
        }

        // mask off the flag to generate the right spill code, then bring it back
        tree->gtFlags &= ~GTF_REG_VAL;

        instruction storeIns = ins_Store(tree->TypeGet(), compiler->isSIMDTypeLocalAligned(varNum));
#if CPU_LONG_USES_REGPAIR
        if (varTypeIsMultiReg(tree))
        {
            assert(varDsc->lvRegNum == genRegPairLo(tree->gtRegPair));
            assert(varDsc->lvOtherReg == genRegPairHi(tree->gtRegPair));
            regNumber regLo = genRegPairLo(tree->gtRegPair);
            regNumber regHi = genRegPairHi(tree->gtRegPair);
            inst_TT_RV(storeIns, tree, regLo);
            inst_TT_RV(storeIns, tree, regHi, 4);
        }
        else
#endif
        {
            assert(varDsc->lvRegNum == tree->gtRegNum);
            inst_TT_RV(storeIns, tree, tree->gtRegNum, 0, size);
        }
        tree->gtFlags |= GTF_REG_VAL;

        if (restoreRegVar)
        {
            tree->SetOper(GT_REG_VAR);
        }

        genUpdateRegLife(varDsc, /*isBorn*/ false, /*isDying*/ true DEBUGARG(tree));
        gcInfo.gcMarkRegSetNpt(varDsc->lvRegMask());

        if (VarSetOps::IsMember(compiler, gcInfo.gcTrkStkPtrLcls, varDsc->lvVarIndex))
        {
#ifdef DEBUG
            if (!VarSetOps::IsMember(compiler, gcInfo.gcVarPtrSetCur, varDsc->lvVarIndex))
            {
                JITDUMP("\t\t\t\t\t\t\tVar V%02u becoming live\n", varNum);
            }
            else
            {
                JITDUMP("\t\t\t\t\t\t\tVar V%02u continuing live\n", varNum);
            }
#endif
            VarSetOps::AddElemD(compiler, gcInfo.gcVarPtrSetCur, varDsc->lvVarIndex);
        }
    }

    tree->gtFlags &= ~GTF_SPILL;
    varDsc->lvRegNum = REG_STK;
    if (varTypeIsMultiReg(tree))
    {
        varDsc->lvOtherReg = REG_STK;
    }
}

// inline
void CodeGenInterface::genUpdateVarReg(LclVarDsc* varDsc, GenTreePtr tree)
{
    assert(tree->OperIsScalarLocal() || (tree->gtOper == GT_COPY));
    varDsc->lvRegNum = tree->gtRegNum;
}

/*****************************************************************************/
/*****************************************************************************/

/*****************************************************************************
 *
 *  Generate code that will set the given register to the integer constant.
 */

void CodeGen::genSetRegToIcon(regNumber reg, ssize_t val, var_types type, insFlags flags)
{
    // Reg cannot be a FP reg
    assert(!genIsValidFloatReg(reg));

    // The only TYP_REF constant that can come this path is a managed 'null' since it is not
    // relocatable.  Other ref type constants (e.g. string objects) go through a different
    // code path.
    noway_assert(type != TYP_REF || val == 0);

    if (val == 0)
    {
        instGen_Set_Reg_To_Zero(emitActualTypeSize(type), reg, flags);
    }
    else
    {
        // TODO-XArch-CQ: needs all the optimized cases
        getEmitter()->emitIns_R_I(INS_mov, emitActualTypeSize(type), reg, val);
    }
}

/*****************************************************************************
 *
 *   Generate code to check that the GS cookie wasn't thrashed by a buffer
 *   overrun.  If pushReg is true, preserve all registers around code sequence.
 *   Otherwise ECX could be modified.
 *
 *   Implementation Note: pushReg = true, in case of tail calls.
 */
void CodeGen::genEmitGSCookieCheck(bool pushReg)
{
    noway_assert(compiler->gsGlobalSecurityCookieAddr || compiler->gsGlobalSecurityCookieVal);

    // Make sure that EAX is reported as live GC-ref so that any GC that kicks in while
    // executing GS cookie check will not collect the object pointed to by EAX.
    //
    // For Amd64 System V, a two-register-returned struct could be returned in RAX and RDX
    // In such case make sure that the correct GC-ness of RDX is reported as well, so
    // a GC object pointed by RDX will not be collected.
    if (!pushReg)
    {
        // Handle multi-reg return type values
        if (compiler->compMethodReturnsMultiRegRetType())
        {
            ReturnTypeDesc retTypeDesc;
            if (varTypeIsLong(compiler->info.compRetNativeType))
            {
                retTypeDesc.InitializeLongReturnType(compiler);
            }
            else // we must have a struct return type
            {
                retTypeDesc.InitializeStructReturnType(compiler, compiler->info.compMethodInfo->args.retTypeClass);
            }

            unsigned regCount = retTypeDesc.GetReturnRegCount();

            // Only x86 and x64 Unix ABI allows multi-reg return and
            // number of result regs should be equal to MAX_RET_REG_COUNT.
            assert(regCount == MAX_RET_REG_COUNT);

            for (unsigned i = 0; i < regCount; ++i)
            {
                gcInfo.gcMarkRegPtrVal(retTypeDesc.GetABIReturnReg(i), retTypeDesc.GetReturnRegType(i));
            }
        }
        else if (compiler->compMethodReturnsRetBufAddr())
        {
            // This is for returning in an implicit RetBuf.
            // If the address of the buffer is returned in REG_INTRET, mark the content of INTRET as ByRef.

            // In case the return is in an implicit RetBuf, the native return type should be a struct
            assert(varTypeIsStruct(compiler->info.compRetNativeType));

            gcInfo.gcMarkRegPtrVal(REG_INTRET, TYP_BYREF);
        }
        // ... all other cases.
        else
        {
#ifdef _TARGET_AMD64_
            // For x64, structs that are not returned in registers are always
            // returned in implicit RetBuf. If we reached here, we should not have
            // a RetBuf and the return type should not be a struct.
            assert(compiler->info.compRetBuffArg == BAD_VAR_NUM);
            assert(!varTypeIsStruct(compiler->info.compRetNativeType));
#endif // _TARGET_AMD64_

            // For x86 Windows we can't make such assertions since we generate code for returning of
            // the RetBuf in REG_INTRET only when the ProfilerHook is enabled. Otherwise
            // compRetNativeType could be TYP_STRUCT.
            gcInfo.gcMarkRegPtrVal(REG_INTRET, compiler->info.compRetNativeType);
        }
    }

    regNumber regGSCheck;
    if (!pushReg)
    {
        // Non-tail call: we can use any callee trash register that is not
        // a return register or contain 'this' pointer (keep alive this), since
        // we are generating GS cookie check after a GT_RETURN block.
        // Note: On Amd64 System V RDX is an arg register - REG_ARG_2 - as well
        // as return register for two-register-returned structs.
        if (compiler->lvaKeepAliveAndReportThis() && compiler->lvaTable[compiler->info.compThisArg].lvRegister &&
            (compiler->lvaTable[compiler->info.compThisArg].lvRegNum == REG_ARG_0))
        {
            regGSCheck = REG_ARG_1;
        }
        else
        {
            regGSCheck = REG_ARG_0;
        }
    }
    else
    {
#ifdef _TARGET_X86_
        NYI_X86("Tail calls from methods that need GS check");
        regGSCheck = REG_NA;
#else  // !_TARGET_X86_
        // Tail calls from methods that need GS check:  We need to preserve registers while
        // emitting GS cookie check for a tail prefixed call or a jmp. To emit GS cookie
        // check, we might need a register. This won't be an issue for jmp calls for the
        // reason mentioned below (see comment starting with "Jmp Calls:").
        //
        // The following are the possible solutions in case of tail prefixed calls:
        // 1) Use R11 - ignore tail prefix on calls that need to pass a param in R11 when
        //    present in methods that require GS cookie check.  Rest of the tail calls that
        //    do not require R11 will be honored.
        // 2) Internal register - GT_CALL node reserves an internal register and emits GS
        //    cookie check as part of tail call codegen. GenExitCode() needs to special case
        //    fast tail calls implemented as epilog+jmp or such tail calls should always get
        //    dispatched via helper.
        // 3) Materialize GS cookie check as a sperate node hanging off GT_CALL node in
        //    right execution order during rationalization.
        //
        // There are two calls that use R11: VSD and calli pinvokes with cookie param. Tail
        // prefix on pinvokes is ignored.  That is, options 2 and 3 will allow tail prefixed
        // VSD calls from methods that need GS check.
        //
        // Tail prefixed calls: Right now for Jit64 compat, method requiring GS cookie check
        // ignores tail prefix.  In future, if we intend to support tail calls from such a method,
        // consider one of the options mentioned above.  For now adding an assert that we don't
        // expect to see a tail call in a method that requires GS check.
        noway_assert(!compiler->compTailCallUsed);

        // Jmp calls: specify method handle using which JIT queries VM for its entry point
        // address and hence it can neither be a VSD call nor PInvoke calli with cookie
        // parameter.  Therefore, in case of jmp calls it is safe to use R11.
        regGSCheck = REG_R11;
#endif // !_TARGET_X86_
    }

    if (compiler->gsGlobalSecurityCookieAddr == nullptr)
    {
        // If GS cookie value fits within 32-bits we can use 'cmp mem64, imm32'.
        // Otherwise, load the value into a reg and use 'cmp mem64, reg64'.
        if ((int)compiler->gsGlobalSecurityCookieVal != (ssize_t)compiler->gsGlobalSecurityCookieVal)
        {
            genSetRegToIcon(regGSCheck, compiler->gsGlobalSecurityCookieVal, TYP_I_IMPL);
            getEmitter()->emitIns_S_R(INS_cmp, EA_PTRSIZE, regGSCheck, compiler->lvaGSSecurityCookie, 0);
        }
        else
        {
            getEmitter()->emitIns_S_I(INS_cmp, EA_PTRSIZE, compiler->lvaGSSecurityCookie, 0,
                                      (int)compiler->gsGlobalSecurityCookieVal);
        }
    }
    else
    {
        // Ngen case - GS cookie value needs to be accessed through an indirection.
        instGen_Set_Reg_To_Imm(EA_HANDLE_CNS_RELOC, regGSCheck, (ssize_t)compiler->gsGlobalSecurityCookieAddr);
        getEmitter()->emitIns_R_AR(ins_Load(TYP_I_IMPL), EA_PTRSIZE, regGSCheck, regGSCheck, 0);
        getEmitter()->emitIns_S_R(INS_cmp, EA_PTRSIZE, regGSCheck, compiler->lvaGSSecurityCookie, 0);
    }

    BasicBlock*  gsCheckBlk = genCreateTempLabel();
    emitJumpKind jmpEqual   = genJumpKindForOper(GT_EQ, CK_SIGNED);
    inst_JMP(jmpEqual, gsCheckBlk);
    genEmitHelperCall(CORINFO_HELP_FAIL_FAST, 0, EA_UNKNOWN);
    genDefineTempLabel(gsCheckBlk);
}

/*****************************************************************************
 *
 *  Generate code for all the basic blocks in the function.
 */

void CodeGen::genCodeForBBlist()
{
    unsigned   varNum;
    LclVarDsc* varDsc;

    unsigned savedStkLvl;

#ifdef DEBUG
    genInterruptibleUsed = true;

    // You have to be careful if you create basic blocks from now on
    compiler->fgSafeBasicBlockCreation = false;

    // This stress mode is not comptible with fully interruptible GC
    if (genInterruptible && compiler->opts.compStackCheckOnCall)
    {
        compiler->opts.compStackCheckOnCall = false;
    }

    // This stress mode is not comptible with fully interruptible GC
    if (genInterruptible && compiler->opts.compStackCheckOnRet)
    {
        compiler->opts.compStackCheckOnRet = false;
    }
#endif // DEBUG

    // Prepare the blocks for exception handling codegen: mark the blocks that needs labels.
    genPrepForEHCodegen();

    assert(!compiler->fgFirstBBScratch ||
           compiler->fgFirstBB == compiler->fgFirstBBScratch); // compiler->fgFirstBBScratch has to be first.

    /* Initialize the spill tracking logic */

    regSet.rsSpillBeg();

#ifdef DEBUGGING_SUPPORT
    /* Initialize the line# tracking logic */

    if (compiler->opts.compScopeInfo)
    {
        siInit();
    }
#endif

    // The current implementation of switch tables requires the first block to have a label so it
    // can generate offsets to the switch label targets.
    // TODO-XArch-CQ: remove this when switches have been re-implemented to not use this.
    if (compiler->fgHasSwitch)
    {
        compiler->fgFirstBB->bbFlags |= BBF_JMP_TARGET;
    }

    genPendingCallLabel = nullptr;

    /* Initialize the pointer tracking code */

    gcInfo.gcRegPtrSetInit();
    gcInfo.gcVarPtrSetInit();

    /* If any arguments live in registers, mark those regs as such */

    for (varNum = 0, varDsc = compiler->lvaTable; varNum < compiler->lvaCount; varNum++, varDsc++)
    {
        /* Is this variable a parameter assigned to a register? */

        if (!varDsc->lvIsParam || !varDsc->lvRegister)
        {
            continue;
        }

        /* Is the argument live on entry to the method? */

        if (!VarSetOps::IsMember(compiler, compiler->fgFirstBB->bbLiveIn, varDsc->lvVarIndex))
        {
            continue;
        }

        /* Is this a floating-point argument? */

        if (varDsc->IsFloatRegType())
        {
            continue;
        }

        noway_assert(!varTypeIsFloating(varDsc->TypeGet()));

        /* Mark the register as holding the variable */

        regTracker.rsTrackRegLclVar(varDsc->lvRegNum, varNum);
    }

    unsigned finallyNesting = 0;

    // Make sure a set is allocated for compiler->compCurLife (in the long case), so we can set it to empty without
    // allocation at the start of each basic block.
    VarSetOps::AssignNoCopy(compiler, compiler->compCurLife, VarSetOps::MakeEmpty(compiler));

    /*-------------------------------------------------------------------------
     *
     *  Walk the basic blocks and generate code for each one
     *
     */

    BasicBlock* block;
    BasicBlock* lblk; /* previous block */

    for (lblk = nullptr, block = compiler->fgFirstBB; block != nullptr; lblk = block, block = block->bbNext)
    {
#ifdef DEBUG
        if (compiler->verbose)
        {
            printf("\n=============== Generating ");
            block->dspBlockHeader(compiler, true, true);
            compiler->fgDispBBLiveness(block);
        }
#endif // DEBUG

        // Figure out which registers hold variables on entry to this block

        regSet.ClearMaskVars();
        gcInfo.gcRegGCrefSetCur = RBM_NONE;
        gcInfo.gcRegByrefSetCur = RBM_NONE;

        compiler->m_pLinearScan->recordVarLocationsAtStartOfBB(block);

        genUpdateLife(block->bbLiveIn);

        // Even if liveness didn't change, we need to update the registers containing GC references.
        // genUpdateLife will update the registers live due to liveness changes. But what about registers that didn't
        // change? We cleared them out above. Maybe we should just not clear them out, but update the ones that change
        // here. That would require handling the changes in recordVarLocationsAtStartOfBB().

        regMaskTP newLiveRegSet  = RBM_NONE;
        regMaskTP newRegGCrefSet = RBM_NONE;
        regMaskTP newRegByrefSet = RBM_NONE;
#ifdef DEBUG
        VARSET_TP VARSET_INIT_NOCOPY(removedGCVars, VarSetOps::MakeEmpty(compiler));
        VARSET_TP VARSET_INIT_NOCOPY(addedGCVars, VarSetOps::MakeEmpty(compiler));
#endif
        VARSET_ITER_INIT(compiler, iter, block->bbLiveIn, varIndex);
        while (iter.NextElem(compiler, &varIndex))
        {
            unsigned   varNum = compiler->lvaTrackedToVarNum[varIndex];
            LclVarDsc* varDsc = &(compiler->lvaTable[varNum]);

            if (varDsc->lvIsInReg())
            {
                newLiveRegSet |= varDsc->lvRegMask();
                if (varDsc->lvType == TYP_REF)
                {
                    newRegGCrefSet |= varDsc->lvRegMask();
                }
                else if (varDsc->lvType == TYP_BYREF)
                {
                    newRegByrefSet |= varDsc->lvRegMask();
                }
#ifdef DEBUG
                if (verbose && VarSetOps::IsMember(compiler, gcInfo.gcVarPtrSetCur, varIndex))
                {
                    VarSetOps::AddElemD(compiler, removedGCVars, varIndex);
                }
#endif // DEBUG
                VarSetOps::RemoveElemD(compiler, gcInfo.gcVarPtrSetCur, varIndex);
            }
            else if (compiler->lvaIsGCTracked(varDsc))
            {
#ifdef DEBUG
                if (verbose && !VarSetOps::IsMember(compiler, gcInfo.gcVarPtrSetCur, varIndex))
                {
                    VarSetOps::AddElemD(compiler, addedGCVars, varIndex);
                }
#endif // DEBUG
                VarSetOps::AddElemD(compiler, gcInfo.gcVarPtrSetCur, varIndex);
            }
        }

        regSet.rsMaskVars = newLiveRegSet;

#ifdef DEBUG
        if (compiler->verbose)
        {
            if (!VarSetOps::IsEmpty(compiler, addedGCVars))
            {
                printf("\t\t\t\t\t\t\tAdded GCVars: ");
                dumpConvertedVarSet(compiler, addedGCVars);
                printf("\n");
            }
            if (!VarSetOps::IsEmpty(compiler, removedGCVars))
            {
                printf("\t\t\t\t\t\t\tRemoved GCVars: ");
                dumpConvertedVarSet(compiler, removedGCVars);
                printf("\n");
            }
        }
#endif // DEBUG

        gcInfo.gcMarkRegSetGCref(newRegGCrefSet DEBUGARG(true));
        gcInfo.gcMarkRegSetByref(newRegByrefSet DEBUGARG(true));

        /* Blocks with handlerGetsXcptnObj()==true use GT_CATCH_ARG to
           represent the exception object (TYP_REF).
           We mark REG_EXCEPTION_OBJECT as holding a GC object on entry
           to the block,  it will be the first thing evaluated
           (thanks to GTF_ORDER_SIDEEFF).
         */

        if (handlerGetsXcptnObj(block->bbCatchTyp))
        {
            for (GenTree* node : LIR::AsRange(block))
            {
                if (node->OperGet() == GT_CATCH_ARG)
                {
                    gcInfo.gcMarkRegSetGCref(RBM_EXCEPTION_OBJECT);
                    break;
                }
            }
        }

        /* Start a new code output block */

        genUpdateCurrentFunclet(block);

        if (genAlignLoops && block->bbFlags & BBF_LOOP_HEAD)
        {
            getEmitter()->emitLoopAlign();
        }

#ifdef DEBUG
        if (compiler->opts.dspCode)
        {
            printf("\n      L_M%03u_BB%02u:\n", Compiler::s_compMethodsCount, block->bbNum);
        }
#endif

        block->bbEmitCookie = nullptr;

        if (block->bbFlags & (BBF_JMP_TARGET | BBF_HAS_LABEL))
        {
            /* Mark a label and update the current set of live GC refs */

            block->bbEmitCookie = getEmitter()->emitAddLabel(gcInfo.gcVarPtrSetCur, gcInfo.gcRegGCrefSetCur,
                                                             gcInfo.gcRegByrefSetCur, FALSE);
        }

        if (block == compiler->fgFirstColdBlock)
        {
#ifdef DEBUG
            if (compiler->verbose)
            {
                printf("\nThis is the start of the cold region of the method\n");
            }
#endif
            // We should never have a block that falls through into the Cold section
            noway_assert(!lblk->bbFallsThrough());

            // We require the block that starts the Cold section to have a label
            noway_assert(block->bbEmitCookie);
            getEmitter()->emitSetFirstColdIGCookie(block->bbEmitCookie);
        }

        /* Both stacks are always empty on entry to a basic block */

        genStackLevel = 0;

        savedStkLvl = genStackLevel;

        /* Tell everyone which basic block we're working on */

        compiler->compCurBB = block;

#ifdef DEBUGGING_SUPPORT
        siBeginBlock(block);

        // BBF_INTERNAL blocks don't correspond to any single IL instruction.
        if (compiler->opts.compDbgInfo && (block->bbFlags & BBF_INTERNAL) &&
            !compiler->fgBBisScratch(block)) // If the block is the distinguished first scratch block, then no need to
                                             // emit a NO_MAPPING entry, immediately after the prolog.
        {
            genIPmappingAdd((IL_OFFSETX)ICorDebugInfo::NO_MAPPING, true);
        }

        bool firstMapping = true;
#endif // DEBUGGING_SUPPORT

        /*---------------------------------------------------------------------
         *
         *  Generate code for each statement-tree in the block
         *
         */
        CLANG_FORMAT_COMMENT_ANCHOR;

#if FEATURE_EH_FUNCLETS
        if (block->bbFlags & BBF_FUNCLET_BEG)
        {
            genReserveFuncletProlog(block);
        }
#endif // FEATURE_EH_FUNCLETS

        // Clear compCurStmt and compCurLifeTree.
        compiler->compCurStmt     = nullptr;
        compiler->compCurLifeTree = nullptr;

        // Traverse the block in linear order, generating code for each node as we
        // as we encounter it.
        CLANG_FORMAT_COMMENT_ANCHOR;

#ifdef DEBUGGING_SUPPORT
        IL_OFFSETX currentILOffset = BAD_IL_OFFSET;
#endif
        for (GenTree* node : LIR::AsRange(block).NonPhiNodes())
        {
#ifdef DEBUGGING_SUPPORT
            // Do we have a new IL offset?
            if (node->OperGet() == GT_IL_OFFSET)
            {
                genEnsureCodeEmitted(currentILOffset);
                currentILOffset = node->gtStmt.gtStmtILoffsx;
                genIPmappingAdd(currentILOffset, firstMapping);
                firstMapping = false;
            }
#endif // DEBUGGING_SUPPORT

#ifdef DEBUG
            if (node->OperGet() == GT_IL_OFFSET)
            {
                noway_assert(node->gtStmt.gtStmtLastILoffs <= compiler->info.compILCodeSize ||
                             node->gtStmt.gtStmtLastILoffs == BAD_IL_OFFSET);

                if (compiler->opts.dspCode && compiler->opts.dspInstrs &&
                    node->gtStmt.gtStmtLastILoffs != BAD_IL_OFFSET)
                {
                    while (genCurDispOffset <= node->gtStmt.gtStmtLastILoffs)
                    {
                        genCurDispOffset += dumpSingleInstr(compiler->info.compCode, genCurDispOffset, ">    ");
                    }
                }
            }
#endif // DEBUG

            genCodeForTreeNode(node);
            if (node->gtHasReg() && node->gtLsraInfo.isLocalDefUse)
            {
                genConsumeReg(node);
            }
        } // end for each node in block

#ifdef DEBUG
        // The following set of register spill checks and GC pointer tracking checks used to be
        // performed at statement boundaries. Now, with LIR, there are no statements, so they are
        // performed at the end of each block.
        // TODO: could these checks be performed more frequently? E.g., at each location where
        // the register allocator says there are no live non-variable registers. Perhaps this could
        // be done by (a) keeping a running count of live non-variable registers by using
        // gtLsraInfo.srcCount and gtLsraInfo.dstCount to decrement and increment the count, respectively,
        // and running the checks when the count is zero. Or, (b) use the map maintained by LSRA
        // (operandToLocationInfoMap) to mark a node somehow when, after the execution of that node,
        // there will be no live non-variable registers.

        regSet.rsSpillChk();

        /* Make sure we didn't bungle pointer register tracking */

        regMaskTP ptrRegs       = gcInfo.gcRegGCrefSetCur | gcInfo.gcRegByrefSetCur;
        regMaskTP nonVarPtrRegs = ptrRegs & ~regSet.rsMaskVars;

        // If return is a GC-type, clear it.  Note that if a common
        // epilog is generated (genReturnBB) it has a void return
        // even though we might return a ref.  We can't use the compRetType
        // as the determiner because something we are tracking as a byref
        // might be used as a return value of a int function (which is legal)
        GenTree* blockLastNode = block->lastNode();
        if ((blockLastNode != nullptr) && (blockLastNode->gtOper == GT_RETURN) &&
            (varTypeIsGC(compiler->info.compRetType) ||
             (blockLastNode->gtOp.gtOp1 != nullptr && varTypeIsGC(blockLastNode->gtOp.gtOp1->TypeGet()))))
        {
            nonVarPtrRegs &= ~RBM_INTRET;
        }

        if (nonVarPtrRegs)
        {
            printf("Regset after BB%02u gcr=", block->bbNum);
            printRegMaskInt(gcInfo.gcRegGCrefSetCur & ~regSet.rsMaskVars);
            compiler->getEmitter()->emitDispRegSet(gcInfo.gcRegGCrefSetCur & ~regSet.rsMaskVars);
            printf(", byr=");
            printRegMaskInt(gcInfo.gcRegByrefSetCur & ~regSet.rsMaskVars);
            compiler->getEmitter()->emitDispRegSet(gcInfo.gcRegByrefSetCur & ~regSet.rsMaskVars);
            printf(", regVars=");
            printRegMaskInt(regSet.rsMaskVars);
            compiler->getEmitter()->emitDispRegSet(regSet.rsMaskVars);
            printf("\n");
        }

        noway_assert(nonVarPtrRegs == RBM_NONE);
#endif // DEBUG

#if defined(DEBUG) && defined(LATE_DISASM) && defined(_TARGET_AMD64_)
        if (block->bbNext == nullptr)
        {
            // Unit testing of the AMD64 emitter: generate a bunch of instructions into the last block
            // (it's as good as any, but better than the prolog, which can only be a single instruction
            // group) then use COMPlus_JitLateDisasm=* to see if the late disassembler
            // thinks the instructions are the same as we do.
            genAmd64EmitterUnitTests();
        }
#endif // defined(DEBUG) && defined(LATE_DISASM) && defined(_TARGET_ARM64_)

#ifdef DEBUGGING_SUPPORT
        // It is possible to reach the end of the block without generating code for the current IL offset.
        // For example, if the following IR ends the current block, no code will have been generated for
        // offset 21:
        //
        //          (  0,  0) [000040] ------------                il_offset void   IL offset: 21
        //
        //     N001 (  0,  0) [000039] ------------                nop       void
        //
        // This can lead to problems when debugging the generated code. To prevent these issues, make sure
        // we've generated code for the last IL offset we saw in the block.
        genEnsureCodeEmitted(currentILOffset);

        if (compiler->opts.compScopeInfo && (compiler->info.compVarScopesCount > 0))
        {
            siEndBlock(block);

            /* Is this the last block, and are there any open scopes left ? */

            bool isLastBlockProcessed = (block->bbNext == nullptr);
            if (block->isBBCallAlwaysPair())
            {
                isLastBlockProcessed = (block->bbNext->bbNext == nullptr);
            }

            if (isLastBlockProcessed && siOpenScopeList.scNext)
            {
                /* This assert no longer holds, because we may insert a throw
                   block to demarcate the end of a try or finally region when they
                   are at the end of the method.  It would be nice if we could fix
                   our code so that this throw block will no longer be necessary. */

                // noway_assert(block->bbCodeOffsEnd != compiler->info.compILCodeSize);

                siCloseAllOpenScopes();
            }
        }

#endif // DEBUGGING_SUPPORT

        genStackLevel -= savedStkLvl;

#ifdef DEBUG
        // compCurLife should be equal to the liveOut set, except that we don't keep
        // it up to date for vars that are not register candidates
        // (it would be nice to have a xor set function)

        VARSET_TP VARSET_INIT_NOCOPY(extraLiveVars, VarSetOps::Diff(compiler, block->bbLiveOut, compiler->compCurLife));
        VarSetOps::UnionD(compiler, extraLiveVars, VarSetOps::Diff(compiler, compiler->compCurLife, block->bbLiveOut));
        VARSET_ITER_INIT(compiler, extraLiveVarIter, extraLiveVars, extraLiveVarIndex);
        while (extraLiveVarIter.NextElem(compiler, &extraLiveVarIndex))
        {
            unsigned   varNum = compiler->lvaTrackedToVarNum[extraLiveVarIndex];
            LclVarDsc* varDsc = compiler->lvaTable + varNum;
            assert(!varDsc->lvIsRegCandidate());
        }
#endif

        /* Both stacks should always be empty on exit from a basic block */
        noway_assert(genStackLevel == 0);

#ifdef _TARGET_AMD64_
        // On AMD64, we need to generate a NOP after a call that is the last instruction of the block, in several
        // situations, to support proper exception handling semantics. This is mostly to ensure that when the stack
        // walker computes an instruction pointer for a frame, that instruction pointer is in the correct EH region.
        // The document "X64 and ARM ABIs.docx" has more details. The situations:
        // 1. If the call instruction is in a different EH region as the instruction that follows it.
        // 2. If the call immediately precedes an OS epilog. (Note that what the JIT or VM consider an epilog might
        //    be slightly different from what the OS considers an epilog, and it is the OS-reported epilog that matters
        //    here.)
        // We handle case #1 here, and case #2 in the emitter.
        if (getEmitter()->emitIsLastInsCall())
        {
            // Ok, the last instruction generated is a call instruction. Do any of the other conditions hold?
            // Note: we may be generating a few too many NOPs for the case of call preceding an epilog. Technically,
            // if the next block is a BBJ_RETURN, an epilog will be generated, but there may be some instructions
            // generated before the OS epilog starts, such as a GS cookie check.
            if ((block->bbNext == nullptr) || !BasicBlock::sameEHRegion(block, block->bbNext))
            {
                // We only need the NOP if we're not going to generate any more code as part of the block end.

                switch (block->bbJumpKind)
                {
                    case BBJ_ALWAYS:
                    case BBJ_THROW:
                    case BBJ_CALLFINALLY:
                    case BBJ_EHCATCHRET:
                    // We're going to generate more code below anyway, so no need for the NOP.

                    case BBJ_RETURN:
                    case BBJ_EHFINALLYRET:
                    case BBJ_EHFILTERRET:
                        // These are the "epilog follows" case, handled in the emitter.

                        break;

                    case BBJ_NONE:
                        if (block->bbNext == nullptr)
                        {
                            // Call immediately before the end of the code; we should never get here    .
                            instGen(INS_BREAKPOINT); // This should never get executed
                        }
                        else
                        {
                            // We need the NOP
                            instGen(INS_nop);
                        }
                        break;

                    case BBJ_COND:
                    case BBJ_SWITCH:
                    // These can't have a call as the last instruction!

                    default:
                        noway_assert(!"Unexpected bbJumpKind");
                        break;
                }
            }
        }
#endif // _TARGET_AMD64_

        /* Do we need to generate a jump or return? */

        switch (block->bbJumpKind)
        {
            case BBJ_ALWAYS:
                inst_JMP(EJ_jmp, block->bbJumpDest);
                break;

            case BBJ_RETURN:
                genExitCode(block);
                break;

            case BBJ_THROW:
                // If we have a throw at the end of a function or funclet, we need to emit another instruction
                // afterwards to help the OS unwinder determine the correct context during unwind.
                // We insert an unexecuted breakpoint instruction in several situations
                // following a throw instruction:
                // 1. If the throw is the last instruction of the function or funclet. This helps
                //    the OS unwinder determine the correct context during an unwind from the
                //    thrown exception.
                // 2. If this is this is the last block of the hot section.
                // 3. If the subsequent block is a special throw block.
                // 4. On AMD64, if the next block is in a different EH region.
                if ((block->bbNext == nullptr) || (block->bbNext->bbFlags & BBF_FUNCLET_BEG) ||
                    !BasicBlock::sameEHRegion(block, block->bbNext) ||
                    (!isFramePointerUsed() && compiler->fgIsThrowHlpBlk(block->bbNext)) ||
                    block->bbNext == compiler->fgFirstColdBlock)
                {
                    instGen(INS_BREAKPOINT); // This should never get executed
                }

                break;

            case BBJ_CALLFINALLY:

#if FEATURE_EH_FUNCLETS

                // Generate a call to the finally, like this:
                //      mov         rcx,qword ptr [rbp + 20H]       // Load rcx with PSPSym
                //      call        finally-funclet
                //      jmp         finally-return                  // Only for non-retless finally calls
                // The jmp can be a NOP if we're going to the next block.
                // If we're generating code for the main function (not a funclet), and there is no localloc,
                // then RSP at this point is the same value as that stored in the PSPsym. So just copy RSP
                // instead of loading the PSPSym in this case.

                if (!compiler->compLocallocUsed && (compiler->funCurrentFunc()->funKind == FUNC_ROOT))
                {
                    inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, REG_ARG_0, REG_SPBASE, TYP_I_IMPL);
                }
                else
                {
                    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_S(ins_Load(TYP_I_IMPL), EA_PTRSIZE, REG_ARG_0, compiler->lvaPSPSym, 0);
                }
                getEmitter()->emitIns_J(INS_call, block->bbJumpDest);

                if (block->bbFlags & BBF_RETLESS_CALL)
                {
                    // We have a retless call, and the last instruction generated was a call.
                    // If the next block is in a different EH region (or is the end of the code
                    // block), then we need to generate a breakpoint here (since it will never
                    // get executed) to get proper unwind behavior.

                    if ((block->bbNext == nullptr) || !BasicBlock::sameEHRegion(block, block->bbNext))
                    {
                        instGen(INS_BREAKPOINT); // This should never get executed
                    }
                }
                else
                {
                    // Because of the way the flowgraph is connected, the liveness info for this one instruction
                    // after the call is not (can not be) correct in cases where a variable has a last use in the
                    // handler.  So turn off GC reporting for this single instruction.
                    getEmitter()->emitDisableGC();

                    // Now go to where the finally funclet needs to return to.
                    if (block->bbNext->bbJumpDest == block->bbNext->bbNext)
                    {
                        // Fall-through.
                        // TODO-XArch-CQ: Can we get rid of this instruction, and just have the call return directly
                        // to the next instruction? This would depend on stack walking from within the finally
                        // handler working without this instruction being in this special EH region.
                        instGen(INS_nop);
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        inst_JMP(EJ_jmp, block->bbNext->bbJumpDest);
                    }

                    getEmitter()->emitEnableGC();
                }

#else // !FEATURE_EH_FUNCLETS

                // If we are about to invoke a finally locally from a try block, we have to set the ShadowSP slot
                // corresponding to the finally's nesting level. When invoked in response to an exception, the
                // EE does this.
                //
                // We have a BBJ_CALLFINALLY followed by a BBJ_ALWAYS.
                //
                // We will emit :
                //      mov [ebp - (n + 1)], 0
                //      mov [ebp -  n     ], 0xFC
                //      push &step
                //      jmp  finallyBlock
                // ...
                // step:
                //      mov [ebp -  n     ], 0
                //      jmp leaveTarget
                // ...
                // leaveTarget:

                noway_assert(isFramePointerUsed());

                // Get the nesting level which contains the finally
                compiler->fgGetNestingLevel(block, &finallyNesting);

                // The last slot is reserved for ICodeManager::FixContext(ppEndRegion)
                unsigned filterEndOffsetSlotOffs;
                filterEndOffsetSlotOffs =
                    (unsigned)(compiler->lvaLclSize(compiler->lvaShadowSPslotsVar) - TARGET_POINTER_SIZE);

                unsigned curNestingSlotOffs;
                curNestingSlotOffs = (unsigned)(filterEndOffsetSlotOffs - ((finallyNesting + 1) * TARGET_POINTER_SIZE));

                // Zero out the slot for the next nesting level
                instGen_Store_Imm_Into_Lcl(TYP_I_IMPL, EA_PTRSIZE, 0, compiler->lvaShadowSPslotsVar,
                                           curNestingSlotOffs - TARGET_POINTER_SIZE);
                instGen_Store_Imm_Into_Lcl(TYP_I_IMPL, EA_PTRSIZE, LCL_FINALLY_MARK, compiler->lvaShadowSPslotsVar,
                                           curNestingSlotOffs);

                // Now push the address where the finally funclet should return to directly.
                if (!(block->bbFlags & BBF_RETLESS_CALL))
                {
                    assert(block->isBBCallAlwaysPair());
                    getEmitter()->emitIns_J(INS_push_hide, block->bbNext->bbJumpDest);
                }
                else
                {
                    // EE expects a DWORD, so we give him 0
                    inst_IV(INS_push_hide, 0);
                }

                // Jump to the finally BB
                inst_JMP(EJ_jmp, block->bbJumpDest);

#endif // !FEATURE_EH_FUNCLETS

                // The BBJ_ALWAYS is used because the BBJ_CALLFINALLY can't point to the
                // jump target using bbJumpDest - that is already used to point
                // to the finally block. So just skip past the BBJ_ALWAYS unless the
                // block is RETLESS.
                if (!(block->bbFlags & BBF_RETLESS_CALL))
                {
                    assert(block->isBBCallAlwaysPair());

                    lblk  = block;
                    block = block->bbNext;
                }

                break;

#if FEATURE_EH_FUNCLETS

            case BBJ_EHCATCHRET:
                // Set RAX to the address the VM should return to after the catch.
                // Generate a RIP-relative
                //         lea reg, [rip + disp32] ; the RIP is implicit
                // which will be position-indepenent.
                getEmitter()->emitIns_R_L(INS_lea, EA_PTR_DSP_RELOC, block->bbJumpDest, REG_INTRET);
                __fallthrough;

            case BBJ_EHFINALLYRET:
            case BBJ_EHFILTERRET:
                genReserveFuncletEpilog(block);
                break;

#else // !FEATURE_EH_FUNCLETS

            case BBJ_EHCATCHRET:
                noway_assert(!"Unexpected BBJ_EHCATCHRET"); // not used on x86

            case BBJ_EHFINALLYRET:
            case BBJ_EHFILTERRET:
            {
                // The last statement of the block must be a GT_RETFILT, which has already been generated.
                assert(block->lastNode() != nullptr);
                assert(block->lastNode()->OperGet() == GT_RETFILT);

                if (block->bbJumpKind == BBJ_EHFINALLYRET)
                {
                    assert(block->lastNode()->gtOp.gtOp1 == nullptr); // op1 == nullptr means endfinally

                    // Return using a pop-jmp sequence. As the "try" block calls
                    // the finally with a jmp, this leaves the x86 call-ret stack
                    // balanced in the normal flow of path.

                    noway_assert(isFramePointerRequired());
                    inst_RV(INS_pop_hide, REG_EAX, TYP_I_IMPL);
                    inst_RV(INS_i_jmp, REG_EAX, TYP_I_IMPL);
                }
                else
                {
                    assert(block->bbJumpKind == BBJ_EHFILTERRET);

                    // The return value has already been computed.
                    instGen_Return(0);
                }
            }
            break;

#endif // !FEATURE_EH_FUNCLETS

            case BBJ_NONE:
            case BBJ_COND:
            case BBJ_SWITCH:
                break;

            default:
                noway_assert(!"Unexpected bbJumpKind");
                break;
        }

#ifdef DEBUG
        compiler->compCurBB = nullptr;
#endif

    } //------------------ END-FOR each block of the method -------------------

    /* Nothing is live at this point */
    genUpdateLife(VarSetOps::MakeEmpty(compiler));

    /* Finalize the spill  tracking logic */

    regSet.rsSpillEnd();

    /* Finalize the temp   tracking logic */

    compiler->tmpEnd();

#ifdef DEBUG
    if (compiler->verbose)
    {
        printf("\n# ");
        printf("compCycleEstimate = %6d, compSizeEstimate = %5d ", compiler->compCycleEstimate,
               compiler->compSizeEstimate);
        printf("%s\n", compiler->info.compFullName);
    }
#endif
}

// return the child that has the same reg as the dst (if any)
// other child returned (out param) in 'other'
GenTree* sameRegAsDst(GenTree* tree, GenTree*& other /*out*/)
{
    if (tree->gtRegNum == REG_NA)
    {
        other = nullptr;
        return nullptr;
    }

    GenTreePtr op1 = tree->gtOp.gtOp1;
    GenTreePtr op2 = tree->gtOp.gtOp2;
    if (op1->gtRegNum == tree->gtRegNum)
    {
        other = op2;
        return op1;
    }
    if (op2->gtRegNum == tree->gtRegNum)
    {
        other = op1;
        return op2;
    }
    else
    {
        other = nullptr;
        return nullptr;
    }
}

//  Move an immediate value into an integer register

void CodeGen::instGen_Set_Reg_To_Imm(emitAttr size, regNumber reg, ssize_t imm, insFlags flags)
{
    // reg cannot be a FP register
    assert(!genIsValidFloatReg(reg));

    if (!compiler->opts.compReloc)
    {
        size = EA_SIZE(size); // Strip any Reloc flags from size if we aren't doing relocs
    }

    if ((imm == 0) && !EA_IS_RELOC(size))
    {
        instGen_Set_Reg_To_Zero(size, reg, flags);
    }
    else
    {
        if (genDataIndirAddrCanBeEncodedAsPCRelOffset(imm))
        {
            getEmitter()->emitIns_R_AI(INS_lea, EA_PTR_DSP_RELOC, reg, imm);
        }
        else
        {
            getEmitter()->emitIns_R_I(INS_mov, size, reg, imm);
        }
    }
    regTracker.rsTrackRegIntCns(reg, imm);
}

/***********************************************************************************
 *
 * Generate code to set a register 'targetReg' of type 'targetType' to the constant
 * specified by the constant (GT_CNS_INT or GT_CNS_DBL) in 'tree'. This does not call
 * genProduceReg() on the target register.
 */
void CodeGen::genSetRegToConst(regNumber targetReg, var_types targetType, GenTreePtr tree)
{

    switch (tree->gtOper)
    {
        case GT_CNS_INT:
        {
            // relocatable values tend to come down as a CNS_INT of native int type
            // so the line between these two opcodes is kind of blurry
            GenTreeIntConCommon* con    = tree->AsIntConCommon();
            ssize_t              cnsVal = con->IconValue();

            if (con->ImmedValNeedsReloc(compiler))
            {
                instGen_Set_Reg_To_Imm(EA_HANDLE_CNS_RELOC, targetReg, cnsVal);
                regTracker.rsTrackRegTrash(targetReg);
            }
            else
            {
                genSetRegToIcon(targetReg, cnsVal, targetType);
            }
        }
        break;

        case GT_CNS_DBL:
        {
            double constValue = tree->gtDblCon.gtDconVal;

            // Make sure we use "xorpd reg, reg"  only for +ve zero constant (0.0) and not for -ve zero (-0.0)
            if (*(__int64*)&constValue == 0)
            {
                // A faster/smaller way to generate 0
                instruction ins = genGetInsForOper(GT_XOR, targetType);
                inst_RV_RV(ins, targetReg, targetReg, targetType);
            }
            else
            {
                GenTreePtr cns;
                if (targetType == TYP_FLOAT)
                {
                    float f = forceCastToFloat(constValue);
                    cns     = genMakeConst(&f, targetType, tree, false);
                }
                else
                {
                    cns = genMakeConst(&constValue, targetType, tree, true);
                }

                inst_RV_TT(ins_Load(targetType), targetReg, cns);
            }
        }
        break;

        default:
            unreached();
    }
}

// Generate code to get the high N bits of a N*N=2N bit multiplication result
void CodeGen::genCodeForMulHi(GenTreeOp* treeNode)
{
    assert(!(treeNode->gtFlags & GTF_UNSIGNED));
    assert(!treeNode->gtOverflowEx());

    regNumber targetReg  = treeNode->gtRegNum;
    var_types targetType = treeNode->TypeGet();
    emitter*  emit       = getEmitter();
    emitAttr  size       = emitTypeSize(treeNode);
    GenTree*  op1        = treeNode->gtOp.gtOp1;
    GenTree*  op2        = treeNode->gtOp.gtOp2;

    // to get the high bits of the multiply, we are constrained to using the
    // 1-op form:  RDX:RAX = RAX * rm
    // The 3-op form (Rx=Ry*Rz) does not support it.

    genConsumeOperands(treeNode->AsOp());

    GenTree* regOp = op1;
    GenTree* rmOp  = op2;

    // Set rmOp to the contained memory operand (if any)
    //
    if (op1->isContained() || (!op2->isContained() && (op2->gtRegNum == targetReg)))
    {
        regOp = op2;
        rmOp  = op1;
    }
    assert(!regOp->isContained());

    // Setup targetReg when neither of the source operands was a matching register
    if (regOp->gtRegNum != targetReg)
    {
        inst_RV_RV(ins_Copy(targetType), targetReg, regOp->gtRegNum, targetType);
    }

    emit->emitInsBinary(INS_imulEAX, size, treeNode, rmOp);

    // Move the result to the desired register, if necessary
    if (targetReg != REG_RDX)
    {
        inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, targetReg, REG_RDX, targetType);
    }
}

// generate code for a DIV or MOD operation
//
void CodeGen::genCodeForDivMod(GenTreeOp* treeNode)
{
    GenTree*   dividend   = treeNode->gtOp1;
    GenTree*   divisor    = treeNode->gtOp2;
    genTreeOps oper       = treeNode->OperGet();
    emitAttr   size       = emitTypeSize(treeNode);
    regNumber  targetReg  = treeNode->gtRegNum;
    var_types  targetType = treeNode->TypeGet();
    emitter*   emit       = getEmitter();

    // dividend is not contained.
    assert(!dividend->isContained());

    genConsumeOperands(treeNode->AsOp());
    if (varTypeIsFloating(targetType))
    {
        // divisor is not contained or if contained is a memory op.
        // Note that a reg optional operand is a treated as a memory op
        // if no register is allocated to it.
        assert(!divisor->isContained() || divisor->isMemoryOp() || divisor->IsCnsFltOrDbl() ||
               divisor->IsRegOptional());

        // Floating point div/rem operation
        assert(oper == GT_DIV || oper == GT_MOD);

        if (dividend->gtRegNum == targetReg)
        {
            emit->emitInsBinary(genGetInsForOper(treeNode->gtOper, targetType), size, treeNode, divisor);
        }
        else if (!divisor->isContained() && divisor->gtRegNum == targetReg)
        {
            // It is not possible to generate 2-operand divss or divsd where reg2 = reg1 / reg2
            // because divss/divsd reg1, reg2 will over-write reg1.  Therefore, in case of AMD64
            // LSRA has to make sure that such a register assignment is not generated for floating
            // point div/rem operations.
            noway_assert(
                !"GT_DIV/GT_MOD (float): case of reg2 = reg1 / reg2, LSRA should never generate such a reg assignment");
        }
        else
        {
            inst_RV_RV(ins_Copy(targetType), targetReg, dividend->gtRegNum, targetType);
            emit->emitInsBinary(genGetInsForOper(treeNode->gtOper, targetType), size, treeNode, divisor);
        }
    }
    else
    {
        // dividend must be in RAX
        if (dividend->gtRegNum != REG_RAX)
        {
            inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, REG_RAX, dividend->gtRegNum, targetType);
        }

        // zero or sign extend rax to rdx
        if (oper == GT_UMOD || oper == GT_UDIV)
        {
            instGen_Set_Reg_To_Zero(EA_PTRSIZE, REG_EDX);
        }
        else
        {
            emit->emitIns(INS_cdq, size);
            // the cdq instruction writes RDX, So clear the gcInfo for RDX
            gcInfo.gcMarkRegSetNpt(RBM_RDX);
        }

        // Perform the 'targetType' (64-bit or 32-bit) divide instruction
        instruction ins;
        if (oper == GT_UMOD || oper == GT_UDIV)
        {
            ins = INS_div;
        }
        else
        {
            ins = INS_idiv;
        }

        emit->emitInsBinary(ins, size, treeNode, divisor);

        // DIV/IDIV instructions always store the quotient in RAX and the remainder in RDX.
        // Move the result to the desired register, if necessary
        if (oper == GT_DIV || oper == GT_UDIV)
        {
            if (targetReg != REG_RAX)
            {
                inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, targetReg, REG_RAX, targetType);
            }
        }
        else
        {
            assert((oper == GT_MOD) || (oper == GT_UMOD));
            if (targetReg != REG_RDX)
            {
                inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, targetReg, REG_RDX, targetType);
            }
        }
    }
    genProduceReg(treeNode);
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genCodeForBinary: Generate code for many binary arithmetic operators
// This method is expected to have called genConsumeOperands() before calling it.
//
// Arguments:
//    treeNode - The binary operation for which we are generating code.
//
// Return Value:
//    None.
//
// Notes:
//    Mul and div variants have special constraints on x64 so are not handled here.
//    See teh assert below for the operators that are handled.

void CodeGen::genCodeForBinary(GenTree* treeNode)
{
    const genTreeOps oper       = treeNode->OperGet();
    regNumber        targetReg  = treeNode->gtRegNum;
    var_types        targetType = treeNode->TypeGet();
    emitter*         emit       = getEmitter();

#if defined(_TARGET_64BIT_)
    assert(oper == GT_OR || oper == GT_XOR || oper == GT_AND || oper == GT_ADD || oper == GT_SUB);
#else  // !defined(_TARGET_64BIT_)
    assert(oper == GT_OR || oper == GT_XOR || oper == GT_AND || oper == GT_ADD_LO || oper == GT_ADD_HI ||
           oper == GT_SUB_LO || oper == GT_SUB_HI || oper == GT_MUL_HI || oper == GT_DIV_HI || oper == GT_MOD_HI ||
           oper == GT_ADD || oper == GT_SUB);
#endif // !defined(_TARGET_64BIT_)

    GenTreePtr op1 = treeNode->gtGetOp1();
    GenTreePtr op2 = treeNode->gtGetOp2();

    // Commutative operations can mark op1 as contained to generate "op reg, memop/immed"
    if (op1->isContained())
    {
        assert(treeNode->OperIsCommutative());
        assert(op1->isMemoryOp() || op1->IsCnsNonZeroFltOrDbl() || op1->IsIntCnsFitsInI32() || op1->IsRegOptional());

        op1 = treeNode->gtGetOp2();
        op2 = treeNode->gtGetOp1();
    }

    instruction ins = genGetInsForOper(treeNode->OperGet(), targetType);

    // The arithmetic node must be sitting in a register (since it's not contained)
    noway_assert(targetReg != REG_NA);

    regNumber op1reg = op1->isContained() ? REG_NA : op1->gtRegNum;
    regNumber op2reg = op2->isContained() ? REG_NA : op2->gtRegNum;

    GenTreePtr dst;
    GenTreePtr src;

    // This is the case of reg1 = reg1 op reg2
    // We're ready to emit the instruction without any moves
    if (op1reg == targetReg)
    {
        dst = op1;
        src = op2;
    }
    // We have reg1 = reg2 op reg1
    // In order for this operation to be correct
    // we need that op is a commutative operation so
    // we can convert it into reg1 = reg1 op reg2 and emit
    // the same code as above
    else if (op2reg == targetReg)
    {
        noway_assert(GenTree::OperIsCommutative(oper));
        dst = op2;
        src = op1;
    }
    // now we know there are 3 different operands so attempt to use LEA
    else if (oper == GT_ADD && !varTypeIsFloating(treeNode) && !treeNode->gtOverflowEx() // LEA does not set flags
             && (op2->isContainedIntOrIImmed() || !op2->isContained()))
    {
        if (op2->isContainedIntOrIImmed())
        {
            emit->emitIns_R_AR(INS_lea, emitTypeSize(treeNode), targetReg, op1reg,
                               (int)op2->AsIntConCommon()->IconValue());
        }
        else
        {
            assert(op2reg != REG_NA);
            emit->emitIns_R_ARX(INS_lea, emitTypeSize(treeNode), targetReg, op1reg, op2reg, 1, 0);
        }
        genProduceReg(treeNode);
        return;
    }
    // dest, op1 and op2 registers are different:
    // reg3 = reg1 op reg2
    // We can implement this by issuing a mov:
    // reg3 = reg1
    // reg3 = reg3 op reg2
    else
    {
        inst_RV_RV(ins_Copy(targetType), targetReg, op1reg, targetType);
        regTracker.rsTrackRegCopy(targetReg, op1reg);
        gcInfo.gcMarkRegPtrVal(targetReg, targetType);
        dst = treeNode;
        src = op2;
    }

    // try to use an inc or dec
    if (oper == GT_ADD && !varTypeIsFloating(treeNode) && src->isContainedIntOrIImmed() && !treeNode->gtOverflowEx())
    {
        if (src->IsIntegralConst(1))
        {
            emit->emitIns_R(INS_inc, emitTypeSize(treeNode), targetReg);
            genProduceReg(treeNode);
            return;
        }
        else if (src->IsIntegralConst(-1))
        {
            emit->emitIns_R(INS_dec, emitTypeSize(treeNode), targetReg);
            genProduceReg(treeNode);
            return;
        }
    }
    regNumber r = emit->emitInsBinary(ins, emitTypeSize(treeNode), dst, src);
    noway_assert(r == targetReg);

    if (treeNode->gtOverflowEx())
    {
#if !defined(_TARGET_64BIT_)
        assert(oper == GT_ADD || oper == GT_SUB || oper == GT_ADD_HI || oper == GT_SUB_HI);
#else
        assert(oper == GT_ADD || oper == GT_SUB);
#endif
        genCheckOverflow(treeNode);
    }
    genProduceReg(treeNode);
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// isStructReturn: Returns whether the 'treeNode' is returning a struct.
//
// Arguments:
//    treeNode - The tree node to evaluate whether is a struct return.
//
// Return Value:
//    For AMD64 *nix: returns true if the 'treeNode" is a GT_RETURN node, of type struct.
//                    Otherwise returns false.
//    For other platforms always returns false.
//
bool CodeGen::isStructReturn(GenTreePtr treeNode)
{
    // This method could be called for 'treeNode' of GT_RET_FILT or GT_RETURN.
    // For the GT_RET_FILT, the return is always
    // a bool or a void, for the end of a finally block.
    noway_assert(treeNode->OperGet() == GT_RETURN || treeNode->OperGet() == GT_RETFILT);
    if (treeNode->OperGet() != GT_RETURN)
    {
        return false;
    }

#ifdef FEATURE_UNIX_AMD64_STRUCT_PASSING
    return varTypeIsStruct(treeNode);
#else  // !FEATURE_UNIX_AMD64_STRUCT_PASSING
    assert(!varTypeIsStruct(treeNode));
    return false;
#endif // FEATURE_UNIX_AMD64_STRUCT_PASSING
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genStructReturn: Generates code for returning a struct.
//
// Arguments:
//    treeNode - The GT_RETURN tree node.
//
// Return Value:
//    None
//
// Assumption:
//    op1 of GT_RETURN node is either GT_LCL_VAR or multi-reg GT_CALL
void CodeGen::genStructReturn(GenTreePtr treeNode)
{
    assert(treeNode->OperGet() == GT_RETURN);
    GenTreePtr op1 = treeNode->gtGetOp1();

#ifdef FEATURE_UNIX_AMD64_STRUCT_PASSING
    if (op1->OperGet() == GT_LCL_VAR)
    {
        GenTreeLclVarCommon* lclVar = op1->AsLclVarCommon();
        LclVarDsc*           varDsc = &(compiler->lvaTable[lclVar->gtLclNum]);
        assert(varDsc->lvIsMultiRegRet);

        ReturnTypeDesc retTypeDesc;
        retTypeDesc.InitializeStructReturnType(compiler, varDsc->lvVerTypeInfo.GetClassHandle());
        unsigned regCount = retTypeDesc.GetReturnRegCount();
        assert(regCount == MAX_RET_REG_COUNT);

        if (varTypeIsEnregisterableStruct(op1))
        {
            // Right now the only enregistrable structs supported are SIMD vector types.
            assert(varTypeIsSIMD(op1));
            assert(!op1->isContained());

            // This is a case of operand is in a single reg and needs to be
            // returned in multiple ABI return registers.
            regNumber opReg = genConsumeReg(op1);
            regNumber reg0  = retTypeDesc.GetABIReturnReg(0);
            regNumber reg1  = retTypeDesc.GetABIReturnReg(1);

            if (opReg != reg0 && opReg != reg1)
            {
                // Operand reg is different from return regs.
                // Copy opReg to reg0 and let it to be handled by one of the
                // two cases below.
                inst_RV_RV(ins_Copy(TYP_DOUBLE), reg0, opReg, TYP_DOUBLE);
                opReg = reg0;
            }

            if (opReg == reg0)
            {
                assert(opReg != reg1);

                // reg0 - already has required 8-byte in bit position [63:0].
                // reg1 = opReg.
                // swap upper and lower 8-bytes of reg1 so that desired 8-byte is in bit position [63:0].
                inst_RV_RV(ins_Copy(TYP_DOUBLE), reg1, opReg, TYP_DOUBLE);
            }
            else
            {
                assert(opReg == reg1);

                // reg0 = opReg.
                // swap upper and lower 8-bytes of reg1 so that desired 8-byte is in bit position [63:0].
                inst_RV_RV(ins_Copy(TYP_DOUBLE), reg0, opReg, TYP_DOUBLE);
            }
            inst_RV_RV_IV(INS_shufpd, EA_16BYTE, reg1, reg1, 0x01);
        }
        else
        {
            assert(op1->isContained());

            // Copy var on stack into ABI return registers
            int offset = 0;
            for (unsigned i = 0; i < regCount; ++i)
            {
                var_types type = retTypeDesc.GetReturnRegType(i);
                regNumber reg  = retTypeDesc.GetABIReturnReg(i);
                getEmitter()->emitIns_R_S(ins_Load(type), emitTypeSize(type), reg, lclVar->gtLclNum, offset);
                offset += genTypeSize(type);
            }
        }
    }
    else
    {
        assert(op1->IsMultiRegCall() || op1->IsCopyOrReloadOfMultiRegCall());

        genConsumeRegs(op1);

        GenTree*        actualOp1   = op1->gtSkipReloadOrCopy();
        GenTreeCall*    call        = actualOp1->AsCall();
        ReturnTypeDesc* retTypeDesc = call->GetReturnTypeDesc();
        unsigned        regCount    = retTypeDesc->GetReturnRegCount();
        assert(regCount == MAX_RET_REG_COUNT);

        // Handle circular dependency between call allocated regs and ABI return regs.
        //
        // It is possible under LSRA stress that originally allocated regs of call node,
        // say rax and rdx, are spilled and reloaded to rdx and rax respectively.  But
        // GT_RETURN needs to  move values as follows: rdx->rax, rax->rdx. Similar kind
        // kind of circular dependency could arise between xmm0 and xmm1 return regs.
        // Codegen is expected to handle such circular dependency.
        //
        var_types regType0      = retTypeDesc->GetReturnRegType(0);
        regNumber returnReg0    = retTypeDesc->GetABIReturnReg(0);
        regNumber allocatedReg0 = call->GetRegNumByIdx(0);

        var_types regType1      = retTypeDesc->GetReturnRegType(1);
        regNumber returnReg1    = retTypeDesc->GetABIReturnReg(1);
        regNumber allocatedReg1 = call->GetRegNumByIdx(1);

        if (op1->IsCopyOrReload())
        {
            // GT_COPY/GT_RELOAD will have valid reg for those positions
            // that need to be copied or reloaded.
            regNumber reloadReg = op1->AsCopyOrReload()->GetRegNumByIdx(0);
            if (reloadReg != REG_NA)
            {
                allocatedReg0 = reloadReg;
            }

            reloadReg = op1->AsCopyOrReload()->GetRegNumByIdx(1);
            if (reloadReg != REG_NA)
            {
                allocatedReg1 = reloadReg;
            }
        }

        if (allocatedReg0 == returnReg1 && allocatedReg1 == returnReg0)
        {
            // Circular dependency - swap allocatedReg0 and allocatedReg1
            if (varTypeIsFloating(regType0))
            {
                assert(varTypeIsFloating(regType1));

                // The fastest way to swap two XMM regs is using PXOR
                inst_RV_RV(INS_pxor, allocatedReg0, allocatedReg1, TYP_DOUBLE);
                inst_RV_RV(INS_pxor, allocatedReg1, allocatedReg0, TYP_DOUBLE);
                inst_RV_RV(INS_pxor, allocatedReg0, allocatedReg1, TYP_DOUBLE);
            }
            else
            {
                assert(varTypeIsIntegral(regType0));
                assert(varTypeIsIntegral(regType1));
                inst_RV_RV(INS_xchg, allocatedReg1, allocatedReg0, TYP_I_IMPL);
            }
        }
        else if (allocatedReg1 == returnReg0)
        {
            // Change the order of moves to correctly handle dependency.
            if (allocatedReg1 != returnReg1)
            {
                inst_RV_RV(ins_Copy(regType1), returnReg1, allocatedReg1, regType1);
            }

            if (allocatedReg0 != returnReg0)
            {
                inst_RV_RV(ins_Copy(regType0), returnReg0, allocatedReg0, regType0);
            }
        }
        else
        {
            // No circular dependency case.
            if (allocatedReg0 != returnReg0)
            {
                inst_RV_RV(ins_Copy(regType0), returnReg0, allocatedReg0, regType0);
            }

            if (allocatedReg1 != returnReg1)
            {
                inst_RV_RV(ins_Copy(regType1), returnReg1, allocatedReg1, regType1);
            }
        }
    }
#else
    unreached();
#endif
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genReturn: Generates code for return statement.
//            In case of struct return, delegates to the genStructReturn method.
//
// Arguments:
//    treeNode - The GT_RETURN or GT_RETFILT tree node.
//
// Return Value:
//    None
//
void CodeGen::genReturn(GenTreePtr treeNode)
{
    assert(treeNode->OperGet() == GT_RETURN || treeNode->OperGet() == GT_RETFILT);
    GenTreePtr op1        = treeNode->gtGetOp1();
    var_types  targetType = treeNode->TypeGet();

#ifdef DEBUG
    if (targetType == TYP_VOID)
    {
        assert(op1 == nullptr);
    }
#endif

#ifdef _TARGET_X86_
    if (treeNode->TypeGet() == TYP_LONG)
    {
        assert(op1 != nullptr);
        noway_assert(op1->OperGet() == GT_LONG);
        GenTree* loRetVal = op1->gtGetOp1();
        GenTree* hiRetVal = op1->gtGetOp2();
        noway_assert((loRetVal->gtRegNum != REG_NA) && (hiRetVal->gtRegNum != REG_NA));

        genConsumeReg(loRetVal);
        genConsumeReg(hiRetVal);
        if (loRetVal->gtRegNum != REG_LNGRET_LO)
        {
            inst_RV_RV(ins_Copy(targetType), REG_LNGRET_LO, loRetVal->gtRegNum, TYP_INT);
        }
        if (hiRetVal->gtRegNum != REG_LNGRET_HI)
        {
            inst_RV_RV(ins_Copy(targetType), REG_LNGRET_HI, hiRetVal->gtRegNum, TYP_INT);
        }
    }
    else
#endif // !defined(_TARGET_X86_)
    {
        if (isStructReturn(treeNode))
        {
            genStructReturn(treeNode);
        }
        else if (targetType != TYP_VOID)
        {
            assert(op1 != nullptr);
            noway_assert(op1->gtRegNum != REG_NA);

            // !! NOTE !! genConsumeReg will clear op1 as GC ref after it has
            // consumed a reg for the operand. This is because the variable
            // is dead after return. But we are issuing more instructions
            // like "profiler leave callback" after this consumption. So
            // if you are issuing more instructions after this point,
            // remember to keep the variable live up until the new method
            // exit point where it is actually dead.
            genConsumeReg(op1);

            regNumber retReg = varTypeIsFloating(treeNode) ? REG_FLOATRET : REG_INTRET;
#ifdef _TARGET_X86_
            if (varTypeIsFloating(treeNode))
            {
                // Spill the return value register from an XMM register to the stack, then load it on the x87 stack.
                // If it already has a home location, use that. Otherwise, we need a temp.
                if (genIsRegCandidateLocal(op1) && compiler->lvaTable[op1->gtLclVarCommon.gtLclNum].lvOnFrame)
                {
                    // Store local variable to its home location, if necessary.
                    if ((op1->gtFlags & GTF_REG_VAL) != 0)
                    {
                        op1->gtFlags &= ~GTF_REG_VAL;
                        inst_TT_RV(ins_Store(op1->gtType,
                                             compiler->isSIMDTypeLocalAligned(op1->gtLclVarCommon.gtLclNum)),
                                   op1, op1->gtRegNum);
                    }
                    // Now, load it to the fp stack.
                    getEmitter()->emitIns_S(INS_fld, emitTypeSize(op1), op1->AsLclVarCommon()->gtLclNum, 0);
                }
                else
                {
                    // Spill the value, which should be in a register, then load it to the fp stack.
                    // TODO-X86-CQ: Deal with things that are already in memory (don't call genConsumeReg yet).
                    op1->gtFlags |= GTF_SPILL;
                    regSet.rsSpillTree(op1->gtRegNum, op1);
                    op1->gtFlags |= GTF_SPILLED;
                    op1->gtFlags &= ~GTF_SPILL;

                    TempDsc* t = regSet.rsUnspillInPlace(op1, op1->gtRegNum);
                    inst_FS_ST(INS_fld, emitActualTypeSize(op1->gtType), t, 0);
                    op1->gtFlags &= ~GTF_SPILLED;
                    compiler->tmpRlsTemp(t);
                }
            }
            else
#endif // _TARGET_X86_
            {
                if (op1->gtRegNum != retReg)
                {
                    inst_RV_RV(ins_Copy(targetType), retReg, op1->gtRegNum, targetType);
                }
            }
        }
    }

#ifdef PROFILING_SUPPORTED
    // !! Note !!
    // TODO-AMD64-Unix: If the profiler hook is implemented on *nix, make sure for 2 register returned structs
    //                  the RAX and RDX needs to be kept alive. Make the necessary changes in lowerxarch.cpp
    //                  in the handling of the GT_RETURN statement.
    //                  Such structs containing GC pointers need to be handled by calling gcInfo.gcMarkRegSetNpt
    //                  for the return registers containing GC refs.

    // There will be a single return block while generating profiler ELT callbacks.
    //
    // Reason for not materializing Leave callback as a GT_PROF_HOOK node after GT_RETURN:
    // In flowgraph and other places assert that the last node of a block marked as
    // GT_RETURN is either a GT_RETURN or GT_JMP or a tail call.  It would be nice to
    // maintain such an invariant irrespective of whether profiler hook needed or not.
    // Also, there is not much to be gained by materializing it as an explicit node.
    if (compiler->compCurBB == compiler->genReturnBB)
    {
        // !! NOTE !!
        // Since we are invalidating the assumption that we would slip into the epilog
        // right after the "return", we need to preserve the return reg's GC state
        // across the call until actual method return.
        if (varTypeIsGC(compiler->info.compRetType))
        {
            gcInfo.gcMarkRegPtrVal(REG_INTRET, compiler->info.compRetType);
        }

        genProfilingLeaveCallback();

        if (varTypeIsGC(compiler->info.compRetType))
        {
            gcInfo.gcMarkRegSetNpt(REG_INTRET);
        }
    }
#endif
}

/*****************************************************************************
 *
 * Generate code for a single node in the tree.
 * Preconditions: All operands have been evaluated
 *
 */
void CodeGen::genCodeForTreeNode(GenTreePtr treeNode)
{
    regNumber targetReg;
#if !defined(_TARGET_64BIT_)
    if (treeNode->TypeGet() == TYP_LONG)
    {
        // All long enregistered nodes will have been decomposed into their
        // constituent lo and hi nodes.
        targetReg = REG_NA;
    }
    else
#endif // !defined(_TARGET_64BIT_)
    {
        targetReg = treeNode->gtRegNum;
    }
    var_types targetType = treeNode->TypeGet();
    emitter*  emit       = getEmitter();

#ifdef DEBUG
    // Validate that all the operands for the current node are consumed in order.
    // This is important because LSRA ensures that any necessary copies will be
    // handled correctly.
    lastConsumedNode = nullptr;
    if (compiler->verbose)
    {
        unsigned seqNum = treeNode->gtSeqNum; // Useful for setting a conditional break in Visual Studio
        printf("Generating: ");
        compiler->gtDispTree(treeNode, nullptr, nullptr, true);
    }
#endif // DEBUG

    // Is this a node whose value is already in a register?  LSRA denotes this by
    // setting the GTF_REUSE_REG_VAL flag.
    if (treeNode->IsReuseRegVal())
    {
        // For now, this is only used for constant nodes.
        assert((treeNode->OperIsConst()));
        JITDUMP("  TreeNode is marked ReuseReg\n");
        return;
    }

    // contained nodes are part of their parents for codegen purposes
    // ex : immediates, most LEAs
    if (treeNode->isContained())
    {
        return;
    }

    switch (treeNode->gtOper)
    {
        case GT_START_NONGC:
            getEmitter()->emitDisableGC();
            break;

        case GT_PROF_HOOK:
#ifdef PROFILING_SUPPORTED
            // We should be seeing this only if profiler hook is needed
            noway_assert(compiler->compIsProfilerHookNeeded());

            // Right now this node is used only for tail calls. In future if
            // we intend to use it for Enter or Leave hooks, add a data member
            // to this node indicating the kind of profiler hook. For example,
            // helper number can be used.
            genProfilingLeaveCallback(CORINFO_HELP_PROF_FCN_TAILCALL);
#endif // PROFILING_SUPPORTED
            break;

        case GT_LCLHEAP:
            genLclHeap(treeNode);
            break;

        case GT_CNS_INT:
#ifdef _TARGET_X86_
            NYI_IF(treeNode->IsIconHandle(GTF_ICON_TLS_HDL), "TLS constants");
#endif // _TARGET_X86_
            __fallthrough;

        case GT_CNS_DBL:
            genSetRegToConst(targetReg, targetType, treeNode);
            genProduceReg(treeNode);
            break;

        case GT_NEG:
        case GT_NOT:
            if (varTypeIsFloating(targetType))
            {
                assert(treeNode->gtOper == GT_NEG);
                genSSE2BitwiseOp(treeNode);
            }
            else
            {
                GenTreePtr operand = treeNode->gtGetOp1();
                assert(!operand->isContained());
                regNumber operandReg = genConsumeReg(operand);

                if (operandReg != targetReg)
                {
                    inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, targetReg, operandReg, targetType);
                }

                instruction ins = genGetInsForOper(treeNode->OperGet(), targetType);
                inst_RV(ins, targetReg, targetType);
            }
            genProduceReg(treeNode);
            break;

        case GT_OR:
        case GT_XOR:
        case GT_AND:
            assert(varTypeIsIntegralOrI(treeNode));
            __fallthrough;

#if !defined(_TARGET_64BIT_)
        case GT_ADD_LO:
        case GT_ADD_HI:
        case GT_SUB_LO:
        case GT_SUB_HI:
#endif // !defined(_TARGET_64BIT_)
        case GT_ADD:
        case GT_SUB:
            genConsumeOperands(treeNode->AsOp());
            genCodeForBinary(treeNode);
            break;

        case GT_LSH:
        case GT_RSH:
        case GT_RSZ:
        case GT_ROL:
        case GT_ROR:
            genCodeForShift(treeNode);
            // genCodeForShift() calls genProduceReg()
            break;

        case GT_CAST:
#if !defined(_TARGET_64BIT_)
            // We will NYI in DecomposeNode() if we are cast TO a long type, but we do not
            // yet support casting FROM a long type either, and that's simpler to catch
            // here.
            NYI_IF(varTypeIsLong(treeNode->gtOp.gtOp1), "Casts from TYP_LONG");
#endif // !defined(_TARGET_64BIT_)

            if (varTypeIsFloating(targetType) && varTypeIsFloating(treeNode->gtOp.gtOp1))
            {
                // Casts float/double <--> double/float
                genFloatToFloatCast(treeNode);
            }
            else if (varTypeIsFloating(treeNode->gtOp.gtOp1))
            {
                // Casts float/double --> int32/int64
                genFloatToIntCast(treeNode);
            }
            else if (varTypeIsFloating(targetType))
            {
                // Casts int32/uint32/int64/uint64 --> float/double
                genIntToFloatCast(treeNode);
            }
            else
            {
                // Casts int <--> int
                genIntToIntCast(treeNode);
            }
            // The per-case functions call genProduceReg()
            break;

        case GT_LCL_VAR:
        {
            // lcl_vars are not defs
            assert((treeNode->gtFlags & GTF_VAR_DEF) == 0);

            GenTreeLclVarCommon* lcl            = treeNode->AsLclVarCommon();
            bool                 isRegCandidate = compiler->lvaTable[lcl->gtLclNum].lvIsRegCandidate();

            if (isRegCandidate && !(treeNode->gtFlags & GTF_VAR_DEATH))
            {
                assert((treeNode->InReg()) || (treeNode->gtFlags & GTF_SPILLED));
            }

            // If this is a register candidate that has been spilled, genConsumeReg() will
            // reload it at the point of use.  Otherwise, if it's not in a register, we load it here.

            if (!treeNode->InReg() && !(treeNode->gtFlags & GTF_SPILLED))
            {
                assert(!isRegCandidate);

                emit->emitIns_R_S(ins_Load(treeNode->TypeGet(), compiler->isSIMDTypeLocalAligned(lcl->gtLclNum)),
                                  emitTypeSize(treeNode), treeNode->gtRegNum, lcl->gtLclNum, 0);
                genProduceReg(treeNode);
            }
        }
        break;

        case GT_LCL_FLD_ADDR:
        case GT_LCL_VAR_ADDR:
            // Address of a local var.  This by itself should never be allocated a register.
            // If it is worth storing the address in a register then it should be cse'ed into
            // a temp and that would be allocated a register.
            noway_assert(targetType == TYP_BYREF);
            noway_assert(!treeNode->InReg());

            inst_RV_TT(INS_lea, targetReg, treeNode, 0, EA_BYREF);
            genProduceReg(treeNode);
            break;

        case GT_LCL_FLD:
        {
            noway_assert(targetType != TYP_STRUCT);
            noway_assert(treeNode->gtRegNum != REG_NA);

#ifdef FEATURE_SIMD
            // Loading of TYP_SIMD12 (i.e. Vector3) field
            if (treeNode->TypeGet() == TYP_SIMD12)
            {
                genLoadLclFldTypeSIMD12(treeNode);
                break;
            }
#endif

            emitAttr size   = emitTypeSize(targetType);
            unsigned offs   = treeNode->gtLclFld.gtLclOffs;
            unsigned varNum = treeNode->gtLclVarCommon.gtLclNum;
            assert(varNum < compiler->lvaCount);

            emit->emitIns_R_S(ins_Move_Extend(targetType, treeNode->InReg()), size, targetReg, varNum, offs);
        }
            genProduceReg(treeNode);
            break;

        case GT_STORE_LCL_FLD:
        {
            noway_assert(targetType != TYP_STRUCT);
            noway_assert(!treeNode->InReg());
            assert(!varTypeIsFloating(targetType) || (targetType == treeNode->gtGetOp1()->TypeGet()));

#ifdef FEATURE_SIMD
            // storing of TYP_SIMD12 (i.e. Vector3) field
            if (treeNode->TypeGet() == TYP_SIMD12)
            {
                genStoreLclFldTypeSIMD12(treeNode);
                break;
            }
#endif
            GenTreePtr op1 = treeNode->gtGetOp1();
            genConsumeRegs(op1);
            emit->emitInsBinary(ins_Store(targetType), emitTypeSize(treeNode), treeNode, op1);
        }
        break;

        case GT_STORE_LCL_VAR:
        {
            GenTreePtr op1 = treeNode->gtGetOp1();

            // var = call, where call returns a multi-reg return value
            // case is handled separately.
            if (op1->gtSkipReloadOrCopy()->IsMultiRegCall())
            {
                genMultiRegCallStoreToLocal(treeNode);
            }
            else
            {
                noway_assert(targetType != TYP_STRUCT);
                assert(!varTypeIsFloating(targetType) || (targetType == treeNode->gtGetOp1()->TypeGet()));

                unsigned   lclNum = treeNode->AsLclVarCommon()->gtLclNum;
                LclVarDsc* varDsc = &(compiler->lvaTable[lclNum]);

                // Ensure that lclVar nodes are typed correctly.
                assert(!varDsc->lvNormalizeOnStore() || treeNode->TypeGet() == genActualType(varDsc->TypeGet()));

#if !defined(_TARGET_64BIT_)
                if (treeNode->TypeGet() == TYP_LONG)
                {
                    genStoreLongLclVar(treeNode);
                    break;
                }
#endif // !defined(_TARGET_64BIT_)

#ifdef FEATURE_SIMD
                if (varTypeIsSIMD(targetType) && (targetReg != REG_NA) && op1->IsCnsIntOrI())
                {
                    // This is only possible for a zero-init.
                    noway_assert(op1->IsIntegralConst(0));
                    genSIMDZero(targetType, varDsc->lvBaseType, targetReg);
                    genProduceReg(treeNode);
                    break;
                }
#endif // FEATURE_SIMD

                genConsumeRegs(op1);

                if (treeNode->gtRegNum == REG_NA)
                {
                    // stack store
                    emit->emitInsMov(ins_Store(targetType, compiler->isSIMDTypeLocalAligned(lclNum)),
                                     emitTypeSize(targetType), treeNode);
                    varDsc->lvRegNum = REG_STK;
                }
                else
                {
                    bool containedOp1 = op1->isContained();
                    // Look for the case where we have a constant zero which we've marked for reuse,
                    // but which isn't actually in the register we want.  In that case, it's better to create
                    // zero in the target register, because an xor is smaller than a copy. Note that we could
                    // potentially handle this in the register allocator, but we can't always catch it there
                    // because the target may not have a register allocated for it yet.
                    if (!containedOp1 && (op1->gtRegNum != treeNode->gtRegNum) &&
                        (op1->IsIntegralConst(0) || op1->IsFPZero()))
                    {
                        op1->gtRegNum = REG_NA;
                        op1->ResetReuseRegVal();
                        containedOp1 = true;
                    }

                    if (containedOp1)
                    {
                        // Currently, we assume that the contained source of a GT_STORE_LCL_VAR writing to a register
                        // must be a constant. However, in the future we might want to support a contained memory op.
                        // This is a bit tricky because we have to decide it's contained before register allocation,
                        // and this would be a case where, once that's done, we need to mark that node as always
                        // requiring a register - which we always assume now anyway, but once we "optimize" that
                        // we'll have to take cases like this into account.
                        assert((op1->gtRegNum == REG_NA) && op1->OperIsConst());
                        genSetRegToConst(treeNode->gtRegNum, targetType, op1);
                    }
                    else if (op1->gtRegNum != treeNode->gtRegNum)
                    {
                        assert(op1->gtRegNum != REG_NA);
                        emit->emitInsBinary(ins_Move_Extend(targetType, true), emitTypeSize(treeNode), treeNode, op1);
                    }
                }
            }

            if (treeNode->gtRegNum != REG_NA)
            {
                genProduceReg(treeNode);
            }
        }
        break;

        case GT_RETFILT:
            // A void GT_RETFILT is the end of a finally. For non-void filter returns we need to load the result in
            // the return register, if it's not already there. The processing is the same as GT_RETURN.
            if (targetType != TYP_VOID)
            {
                // For filters, the IL spec says the result is type int32. Further, the only specified legal values
                // are 0 or 1, with the use of other values "undefined".
                assert(targetType == TYP_INT);
            }

            __fallthrough;

        case GT_RETURN:
            genReturn(treeNode);
            break;

        case GT_LEA:
        {
            // if we are here, it is the case where there is an LEA that cannot
            // be folded into a parent instruction
            GenTreeAddrMode* lea = treeNode->AsAddrMode();
            genLeaInstruction(lea);
        }
        // genLeaInstruction calls genProduceReg()
        break;

        case GT_IND:
#ifdef FEATURE_SIMD
            // Handling of Vector3 type values loaded through indirection.
            if (treeNode->TypeGet() == TYP_SIMD12)
            {
                genLoadIndTypeSIMD12(treeNode);
                break;
            }
#endif // FEATURE_SIMD

            genConsumeAddress(treeNode->AsIndir()->Addr());
            emit->emitInsMov(ins_Load(treeNode->TypeGet()), emitTypeSize(treeNode), treeNode);
            genProduceReg(treeNode);
            break;

        case GT_MULHI:
            genCodeForMulHi(treeNode->AsOp());
            genProduceReg(treeNode);
            break;

        case GT_MUL:
        {
            instruction ins;
            emitAttr    size                  = emitTypeSize(treeNode);
            bool        isUnsignedMultiply    = ((treeNode->gtFlags & GTF_UNSIGNED) != 0);
            bool        requiresOverflowCheck = treeNode->gtOverflowEx();

            GenTree* op1 = treeNode->gtGetOp1();
            GenTree* op2 = treeNode->gtGetOp2();

            // there are 3 forms of x64 multiply:
            // 1-op form with 128 result:  RDX:RAX = RAX * rm
            // 2-op form: reg *= rm
            // 3-op form: reg = rm * imm

            genConsumeOperands(treeNode->AsOp());

            // This matches the 'mul' lowering in Lowering::SetMulOpCounts()
            //
            // immOp :: Only one operand can be an immediate
            // rmOp  :: Only one operand can be a memory op.
            // regOp :: A register op (especially the operand that matches 'targetReg')
            //          (can be nullptr when we have both a memory op and an immediate op)

            GenTree* immOp = nullptr;
            GenTree* rmOp  = op1;
            GenTree* regOp;

            if (op2->isContainedIntOrIImmed())
            {
                immOp = op2;
            }
            else if (op1->isContainedIntOrIImmed())
            {
                immOp = op1;
                rmOp  = op2;
            }

            if (immOp != nullptr)
            {
                // This must be a non-floating point operation.
                assert(!varTypeIsFloating(treeNode));

                // CQ: When possible use LEA for mul by imm 3, 5 or 9
                ssize_t imm = immOp->AsIntConCommon()->IconValue();

                if (!requiresOverflowCheck && !rmOp->isContained() && ((imm == 3) || (imm == 5) || (imm == 9)))
                {
                    // We will use the LEA instruction to perform this multiply
                    // Note that an LEA with base=x, index=x and scale=(imm-1) computes x*imm when imm=3,5 or 9.
                    unsigned int scale = (unsigned int)(imm - 1);
                    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_ARX(INS_lea, size, targetReg, rmOp->gtRegNum, rmOp->gtRegNum, scale, 0);
                }
                else
                {
                    // use the 3-op form with immediate
                    ins = getEmitter()->inst3opImulForReg(targetReg);
                    emit->emitInsBinary(ins, size, rmOp, immOp);
                }
            }
            else // we have no contained immediate operand
            {
                regOp = op1;
                rmOp  = op2;

                regNumber mulTargetReg = targetReg;
                if (isUnsignedMultiply && requiresOverflowCheck)
                {
                    ins          = INS_mulEAX;
                    mulTargetReg = REG_RAX;
                }
                else
                {
                    ins = genGetInsForOper(GT_MUL, targetType);
                }

                // Set rmOp to the contain memory operand (if any)
                // or set regOp to the op2 when it has the matching target register for our multiply op
                //
                if (op1->isContained() || (!op2->isContained() && (op2->gtRegNum == mulTargetReg)))
                {
                    regOp = op2;
                    rmOp  = op1;
                }
                assert(!regOp->isContained());

                // Setup targetReg when neither of the source operands was a matching register
                if (regOp->gtRegNum != mulTargetReg)
                {
                    inst_RV_RV(ins_Copy(targetType), mulTargetReg, regOp->gtRegNum, targetType);
                }

                emit->emitInsBinary(ins, size, treeNode, rmOp);

                // Move the result to the desired register, if necessary
                if ((ins == INS_mulEAX) && (targetReg != REG_RAX))
                {
                    inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, targetReg, REG_RAX, targetType);
                }
            }

            if (requiresOverflowCheck)
            {
                // Overflow checking is only used for non-floating point types
                noway_assert(!varTypeIsFloating(treeNode));

                genCheckOverflow(treeNode);
            }
        }
            genProduceReg(treeNode);
            break;

        case GT_MOD:
        case GT_UDIV:
        case GT_UMOD:
            // We shouldn't be seeing GT_MOD on float/double args as it should get morphed into a
            // helper call by front-end.  Similarly we shouldn't be seeing GT_UDIV and GT_UMOD
            // on float/double args.
            noway_assert(!varTypeIsFloating(treeNode));
            __fallthrough;

        case GT_DIV:
            genCodeForDivMod(treeNode->AsOp());
            break;

        case GT_INTRINSIC:
            genIntrinsic(treeNode);
            break;

#ifdef FEATURE_SIMD
        case GT_SIMD:
            genSIMDIntrinsic(treeNode->AsSIMD());
            break;
#endif // FEATURE_SIMD

        case GT_CKFINITE:
            genCkfinite(treeNode);
            break;

        case GT_EQ:
        case GT_NE:
        case GT_LT:
        case GT_LE:
        case GT_GE:
        case GT_GT:
        {
            // TODO-XArch-CQ: Check if we can use the currently set flags.
            // TODO-XArch-CQ: Check for the case where we can simply transfer the carry bit to a register
            //         (signed < or >= where targetReg != REG_NA)

            GenTreePtr op1     = treeNode->gtGetOp1();
            var_types  op1Type = op1->TypeGet();

            if (varTypeIsFloating(op1Type))
            {
                genCompareFloat(treeNode);
            }
#if !defined(_TARGET_64BIT_)
            // X86 Long comparison
            else if (varTypeIsLong(op1Type))
            {
                // When not materializing the result in a register, the compare logic is generated
                // when we generate the GT_JTRUE.
                if (treeNode->gtRegNum != REG_NA)
                {
                    genCompareLong(treeNode);
                }
                else
                {
                    // We generate the compare when we generate the GT_JTRUE, but we need to consume
                    // the operands now.
                    genConsumeOperands(treeNode->AsOp());
                }
            }
#endif // !defined(_TARGET_64BIT_)
            else
            {
                genCompareInt(treeNode);
            }
        }
        break;

        case GT_JTRUE:
        {
            GenTree* cmp = treeNode->gtOp.gtOp1;

            assert(cmp->OperIsCompare());
            assert(compiler->compCurBB->bbJumpKind == BBJ_COND);

#if !defined(_TARGET_64BIT_)
            // For long compares, we emit special logic
            if (varTypeIsLong(cmp->gtGetOp1()))
            {
                genJTrueLong(cmp);
            }
            else
#endif
            {
                // Get the "kind" and type of the comparison.  Note that whether it is an unsigned cmp
                // is governed by a flag NOT by the inherent type of the node
                // TODO-XArch-CQ: Check if we can use the currently set flags.
                emitJumpKind jumpKind[2];
                bool         branchToTrueLabel[2];
                genJumpKindsForTree(cmp, jumpKind, branchToTrueLabel);

                BasicBlock* skipLabel = nullptr;
                if (jumpKind[0] != EJ_NONE)
                {
                    BasicBlock* jmpTarget;
                    if (branchToTrueLabel[0])
                    {
                        jmpTarget = compiler->compCurBB->bbJumpDest;
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        // This case arises only for ordered GT_EQ right now
                        assert((cmp->gtOper == GT_EQ) && ((cmp->gtFlags & GTF_RELOP_NAN_UN) == 0));
                        skipLabel = genCreateTempLabel();
                        jmpTarget = skipLabel;
                    }

                    inst_JMP(jumpKind[0], jmpTarget);
                }

                if (jumpKind[1] != EJ_NONE)
                {
                    // the second conditional branch always has to be to the true label
                    assert(branchToTrueLabel[1]);
                    inst_JMP(jumpKind[1], compiler->compCurBB->bbJumpDest);
                }

                if (skipLabel != nullptr)
                {
                    genDefineTempLabel(skipLabel);
                }
            }
        }
        break;

        case GT_RETURNTRAP:
        {
            // this is nothing but a conditional call to CORINFO_HELP_STOP_FOR_GC
            // based on the contents of 'data'

            GenTree* data = treeNode->gtOp.gtOp1;
            genConsumeRegs(data);
            GenTreeIntCon cns = intForm(TYP_INT, 0);
            emit->emitInsBinary(INS_cmp, emitTypeSize(TYP_INT), data, &cns);

            BasicBlock* skipLabel = genCreateTempLabel();

            emitJumpKind jmpEqual = genJumpKindForOper(GT_EQ, CK_SIGNED);
            inst_JMP(jmpEqual, skipLabel);

            // emit the call to the EE-helper that stops for GC (or other reasons)
            assert(treeNode->gtRsvdRegs != RBM_NONE);
            assert(genCountBits(treeNode->gtRsvdRegs) == 1);
            regNumber tmpReg = genRegNumFromMask(treeNode->gtRsvdRegs);
            assert(genIsValidIntReg(tmpReg));

            genEmitHelperCall(CORINFO_HELP_STOP_FOR_GC, 0, EA_UNKNOWN, tmpReg);
            genDefineTempLabel(skipLabel);
        }
        break;

        case GT_STOREIND:
            genStoreInd(treeNode);
            break;

        case GT_COPY:
            // This is handled at the time we call genConsumeReg() on the GT_COPY
            break;

        case GT_SWAP:
        {
            // Swap is only supported for lclVar operands that are enregistered
            // We do not consume or produce any registers.  Both operands remain enregistered.
            // However, the gc-ness may change.
            assert(genIsRegCandidateLocal(treeNode->gtOp.gtOp1) && genIsRegCandidateLocal(treeNode->gtOp.gtOp2));

            GenTreeLclVarCommon* lcl1    = treeNode->gtOp.gtOp1->AsLclVarCommon();
            LclVarDsc*           varDsc1 = &(compiler->lvaTable[lcl1->gtLclNum]);
            var_types            type1   = varDsc1->TypeGet();
            GenTreeLclVarCommon* lcl2    = treeNode->gtOp.gtOp2->AsLclVarCommon();
            LclVarDsc*           varDsc2 = &(compiler->lvaTable[lcl2->gtLclNum]);
            var_types            type2   = varDsc2->TypeGet();

            // We must have both int or both fp regs
            assert(!varTypeIsFloating(type1) || varTypeIsFloating(type2));

            // FP swap is not yet implemented (and should have NYI'd in LSRA)
            assert(!varTypeIsFloating(type1));

            regNumber oldOp1Reg     = lcl1->gtRegNum;
            regMaskTP oldOp1RegMask = genRegMask(oldOp1Reg);
            regNumber oldOp2Reg     = lcl2->gtRegNum;
            regMaskTP oldOp2RegMask = genRegMask(oldOp2Reg);

            // We don't call genUpdateVarReg because we don't have a tree node with the new register.
            varDsc1->lvRegNum = oldOp2Reg;
            varDsc2->lvRegNum = oldOp1Reg;

            // Do the xchg
            emitAttr size = EA_PTRSIZE;
            if (varTypeGCtype(type1) != varTypeGCtype(type2))
            {
                // If the type specified to the emitter is a GC type, it will swap the GC-ness of the registers.
                // Otherwise it will leave them alone, which is correct if they have the same GC-ness.
                size = EA_GCREF;
            }
            inst_RV_RV(INS_xchg, oldOp1Reg, oldOp2Reg, TYP_I_IMPL, size);

            // Update the gcInfo.
            // Manually remove these regs for the gc sets (mostly to avoid confusing duplicative dump output)
            gcInfo.gcRegByrefSetCur &= ~(oldOp1RegMask | oldOp2RegMask);
            gcInfo.gcRegGCrefSetCur &= ~(oldOp1RegMask | oldOp2RegMask);

            // gcMarkRegPtrVal will do the appropriate thing for non-gc types.
            // It will also dump the updates.
            gcInfo.gcMarkRegPtrVal(oldOp2Reg, type1);
            gcInfo.gcMarkRegPtrVal(oldOp1Reg, type2);
        }
        break;

        case GT_LIST:
        case GT_ARGPLACE:
            // Nothing to do
            break;

        case GT_PUTARG_STK:
            genPutArgStk(treeNode);
            break;

        case GT_PUTARG_REG:
        {
#ifndef FEATURE_UNIX_AMD64_STRUCT_PASSING
            noway_assert(targetType != TYP_STRUCT);
#endif // FEATURE_UNIX_AMD64_STRUCT_PASSING
            // commas show up here commonly, as part of a nullchk operation
            GenTree* op1 = treeNode->gtOp.gtOp1;
            // If child node is not already in the register we need, move it
            genConsumeReg(op1);
            if (treeNode->gtRegNum != op1->gtRegNum)
            {
                inst_RV_RV(ins_Copy(targetType), treeNode->gtRegNum, op1->gtRegNum, targetType);
            }
            genProduceReg(treeNode);
        }
        break;

        case GT_CALL:
            genCallInstruction(treeNode);
            break;

        case GT_JMP:
            genJmpMethod(treeNode);
            break;

        case GT_LOCKADD:
        case GT_XCHG:
        case GT_XADD:
            genLockedInstructions(treeNode);
            break;

        case GT_MEMORYBARRIER:
            instGen_MemoryBarrier();
            break;

        case GT_CMPXCHG:
        {
            GenTreePtr location  = treeNode->gtCmpXchg.gtOpLocation;  // arg1
            GenTreePtr value     = treeNode->gtCmpXchg.gtOpValue;     // arg2
            GenTreePtr comparand = treeNode->gtCmpXchg.gtOpComparand; // arg3

            assert(location->gtRegNum != REG_NA && location->gtRegNum != REG_RAX);
            assert(value->gtRegNum != REG_NA && value->gtRegNum != REG_RAX);

            genConsumeReg(location);
            genConsumeReg(value);
            genConsumeReg(comparand);
            // comparand goes to RAX;
            // Note that we must issue this move after the genConsumeRegs(), in case any of the above
            // have a GT_COPY from RAX.
            if (comparand->gtRegNum != REG_RAX)
            {
                inst_RV_RV(ins_Copy(comparand->TypeGet()), REG_RAX, comparand->gtRegNum, comparand->TypeGet());
            }

            // location is Rm
            instGen(INS_lock);

            emit->emitIns_AR_R(INS_cmpxchg, emitTypeSize(targetType), value->gtRegNum, location->gtRegNum, 0);

            // Result is in RAX
            if (targetReg != REG_RAX)
            {
                inst_RV_RV(ins_Copy(targetType), targetReg, REG_RAX, targetType);
            }
        }
            genProduceReg(treeNode);
            break;

        case GT_RELOAD:
            // do nothing - reload is just a marker.
            // The parent node will call genConsumeReg on this which will trigger the unspill of this node's child
            // into the register specified in this node.
            break;

        case GT_NOP:
            break;

        case GT_NO_OP:
            if (treeNode->gtFlags & GTF_NO_OP_NO)
            {
                noway_assert(!"GTF_NO_OP_NO should not be set");
            }
            else
            {
                getEmitter()->emitIns_Nop(1);
            }
            break;

        case GT_ARR_BOUNDS_CHECK:
#ifdef FEATURE_SIMD
        case GT_SIMD_CHK:
#endif // FEATURE_SIMD
            genRangeCheck(treeNode);
            break;

        case GT_PHYSREG:
            if (treeNode->gtRegNum != treeNode->AsPhysReg()->gtSrcReg)
            {
                inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, treeNode->gtRegNum, treeNode->AsPhysReg()->gtSrcReg, targetType);

                genTransferRegGCState(treeNode->gtRegNum, treeNode->AsPhysReg()->gtSrcReg);
            }
            genProduceReg(treeNode);
            break;

        case GT_PHYSREGDST:
            break;

        case GT_NULLCHECK:
        {
            assert(!treeNode->gtOp.gtOp1->isContained());
            regNumber reg = genConsumeReg(treeNode->gtOp.gtOp1);
            emit->emitIns_AR_R(INS_cmp, EA_4BYTE, reg, reg, 0);
        }
        break;

        case GT_CATCH_ARG:

            noway_assert(handlerGetsXcptnObj(compiler->compCurBB->bbCatchTyp));

            /* Catch arguments get passed in a register. genCodeForBBlist()
               would have marked it as holding a GC object, but not used. */

            noway_assert(gcInfo.gcRegGCrefSetCur & RBM_EXCEPTION_OBJECT);
            genConsumeReg(treeNode);
            break;

#if !FEATURE_EH_FUNCLETS
        case GT_END_LFIN:

            // Have to clear the ShadowSP of the nesting level which encloses the finally. Generates:
            //     mov dword ptr [ebp-0xC], 0  // for some slot of the ShadowSP local var

            unsigned finallyNesting;
            finallyNesting = treeNode->gtVal.gtVal1;
            noway_assert(treeNode->gtVal.gtVal1 < compiler->compHndBBtabCount);
            noway_assert(finallyNesting < compiler->compHndBBtabCount);

            // The last slot is reserved for ICodeManager::FixContext(ppEndRegion)
            unsigned filterEndOffsetSlotOffs;
            PREFIX_ASSUME(compiler->lvaLclSize(compiler->lvaShadowSPslotsVar) >
                          TARGET_POINTER_SIZE); // below doesn't underflow.
            filterEndOffsetSlotOffs =
                (unsigned)(compiler->lvaLclSize(compiler->lvaShadowSPslotsVar) - TARGET_POINTER_SIZE);

            unsigned curNestingSlotOffs;
            curNestingSlotOffs = filterEndOffsetSlotOffs - ((finallyNesting + 1) * TARGET_POINTER_SIZE);
            instGen_Store_Imm_Into_Lcl(TYP_I_IMPL, EA_PTRSIZE, 0, compiler->lvaShadowSPslotsVar, curNestingSlotOffs);
            break;
#endif // !FEATURE_EH_FUNCLETS

        case GT_PINVOKE_PROLOG:
            noway_assert(((gcInfo.gcRegGCrefSetCur | gcInfo.gcRegByrefSetCur) & ~fullIntArgRegMask()) == 0);

            // the runtime side requires the codegen here to be consistent
            emit->emitDisableRandomNops();
            break;

        case GT_LABEL:
            genPendingCallLabel       = genCreateTempLabel();
            treeNode->gtLabel.gtLabBB = genPendingCallLabel;
            emit->emitIns_R_L(INS_lea, EA_PTR_DSP_RELOC, genPendingCallLabel, treeNode->gtRegNum);
            break;

        case GT_STORE_OBJ:
            if (treeNode->OperIsCopyBlkOp() && !treeNode->AsBlk()->gtBlkOpGcUnsafe)
            {
                assert(treeNode->AsObj()->gtGcPtrCount != 0);
                genCodeForCpObj(treeNode->AsObj());
                break;
            }
            __fallthrough;

        case GT_STORE_DYN_BLK:
        case GT_STORE_BLK:
            genCodeForStoreBlk(treeNode->AsBlk());
            break;

        case GT_JMPTABLE:
            genJumpTable(treeNode);
            break;

        case GT_SWITCH_TABLE:
            genTableBasedSwitch(treeNode);
            break;

        case GT_ARR_INDEX:
            genCodeForArrIndex(treeNode->AsArrIndex());
            break;

        case GT_ARR_OFFSET:
            genCodeForArrOffset(treeNode->AsArrOffs());
            break;

        case GT_CLS_VAR_ADDR:
            getEmitter()->emitIns_R_C(INS_lea, EA_PTRSIZE, targetReg, treeNode->gtClsVar.gtClsVarHnd, 0);
            genProduceReg(treeNode);
            break;

#if !defined(_TARGET_64BIT_)
        case GT_LONG:
            assert(!treeNode->isContained());
            genConsumeRegs(treeNode);
            break;
#endif

        case GT_IL_OFFSET:
            // Do nothing; these nodes are simply markers for debug info.
            break;

        default:
        {
#ifdef DEBUG
            char message[256];
            sprintf(message, "Unimplemented node type %s\n", GenTree::NodeName(treeNode->OperGet()));
#endif
            assert(!"Unknown node in codegen");
        }
        break;
    }
}

//----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genMultiRegCallStoreToLocal: store multi-reg return value of a call node to a local
//
// Arguments:
//    treeNode  -  Gentree of GT_STORE_LCL_VAR
//
// Return Value:
//    None
//
// Assumption:
//    The child of store is a multi-reg call node.
//    genProduceReg() on treeNode is made by caller of this routine.
//
void CodeGen::genMultiRegCallStoreToLocal(GenTreePtr treeNode)
{
    assert(treeNode->OperGet() == GT_STORE_LCL_VAR);

#ifdef FEATURE_UNIX_AMD64_STRUCT_PASSING
    // Structs of size >=9 and <=16 are returned in two return registers on x64 Unix.
    assert(varTypeIsStruct(treeNode));

    // Assumption: current x64 Unix implementation requires that a multi-reg struct
    // var in 'var = call' is flagged as lvIsMultiRegRet to prevent it from
    // being struct promoted.
    unsigned   lclNum = treeNode->AsLclVarCommon()->gtLclNum;
    LclVarDsc* varDsc = &(compiler->lvaTable[lclNum]);
    noway_assert(varDsc->lvIsMultiRegRet);

    GenTree*     op1       = treeNode->gtGetOp1();
    GenTree*     actualOp1 = op1->gtSkipReloadOrCopy();
    GenTreeCall* call      = actualOp1->AsCall();
    assert(call->HasMultiRegRetVal());

    genConsumeRegs(op1);

    ReturnTypeDesc* retTypeDesc = call->GetReturnTypeDesc();
    assert(retTypeDesc->GetReturnRegCount() == MAX_RET_REG_COUNT);
    unsigned regCount = retTypeDesc->GetReturnRegCount();

    if (treeNode->gtRegNum != REG_NA)
    {
        // Right now the only enregistrable structs supported are SIMD types.
        assert(varTypeIsSIMD(treeNode));
        assert(varTypeIsFloating(retTypeDesc->GetReturnRegType(0)));
        assert(varTypeIsFloating(retTypeDesc->GetReturnRegType(1)));

        // This is a case of two 8-bytes that comprise the operand is in
        // two different xmm registers and needs to assembled into a single
        // xmm register.
        regNumber targetReg = treeNode->gtRegNum;
        regNumber reg0      = call->GetRegNumByIdx(0);
        regNumber reg1      = call->GetRegNumByIdx(1);

        if (op1->IsCopyOrReload())
        {
            // GT_COPY/GT_RELOAD will have valid reg for those positions
            // that need to be copied or reloaded.
            regNumber reloadReg = op1->AsCopyOrReload()->GetRegNumByIdx(0);
            if (reloadReg != REG_NA)
            {
                reg0 = reloadReg;
            }

            reloadReg = op1->AsCopyOrReload()->GetRegNumByIdx(1);
            if (reloadReg != REG_NA)
            {
                reg1 = reloadReg;
            }
        }

        if (targetReg != reg0 && targetReg != reg1)
        {
            // Copy reg0 into targetReg and let it to be handled by one
            // of the cases below.
            inst_RV_RV(ins_Copy(TYP_DOUBLE), targetReg, reg0, TYP_DOUBLE);
            targetReg = reg0;
        }

        if (targetReg == reg0)
        {
            // targeReg[63:0] = targetReg[63:0]
            // targetReg[127:64] = reg1[127:64]
            inst_RV_RV_IV(INS_shufpd, EA_16BYTE, targetReg, reg1, 0x00);
        }
        else
        {
            assert(targetReg == reg1);

            // We need two shuffles to achieve this
            // First:
            // targeReg[63:0] = targetReg[63:0]
            // targetReg[127:64] = reg0[63:0]
            //
            // Second:
            // targeReg[63:0] = targetReg[127:64]
            // targetReg[127:64] = targetReg[63:0]
            //
            // Essentially copy low 8-bytes from reg0 to high 8-bytes of targetReg
            // and next swap low and high 8-bytes of targetReg to have them
            // rearranged in the right order.
            inst_RV_RV_IV(INS_shufpd, EA_16BYTE, targetReg, reg0, 0x00);
            inst_RV_RV_IV(INS_shufpd, EA_16BYTE, targetReg, targetReg, 0x01);
        }
    }
    else
    {
        // Stack store
        int offset = 0;
        for (unsigned i = 0; i < regCount; ++i)
        {
            var_types type = retTypeDesc->GetReturnRegType(i);
            regNumber reg  = call->GetRegNumByIdx(i);
            if (op1->IsCopyOrReload())
            {
                // GT_COPY/GT_RELOAD will have valid reg for those positions
                // that need to be copied or reloaded.
                regNumber reloadReg = op1->AsCopyOrReload()->GetRegNumByIdx(i);
                if (reloadReg != REG_NA)
                {
                    reg = reloadReg;
                }
            }

            assert(reg != REG_NA);
            getEmitter()->emitIns_S_R(ins_Store(type), emitTypeSize(type), reg, lclNum, offset);
            offset += genTypeSize(type);
        }

        varDsc->lvRegNum = REG_STK;
    }
#elif defined(_TARGET_X86_)
    // Longs are returned in two return registers on x86.
    assert(varTypeIsLong(treeNode));

    // Assumption: current x86 implementation requires that a multi-reg long
    // var in 'var = call' is flagged as lvIsMultiRegRet to prevent it from
    // being promoted.
    unsigned   lclNum = treeNode->AsLclVarCommon()->gtLclNum;
    LclVarDsc* varDsc = &(compiler->lvaTable[lclNum]);
    noway_assert(varDsc->lvIsMultiRegRet);

    GenTree*     op1       = treeNode->gtGetOp1();
    GenTree*     actualOp1 = op1->gtSkipReloadOrCopy();
    GenTreeCall* call      = actualOp1->AsCall();
    assert(call->HasMultiRegRetVal());

    genConsumeRegs(op1);

    ReturnTypeDesc* retTypeDesc = call->GetReturnTypeDesc();
    unsigned        regCount    = retTypeDesc->GetReturnRegCount();
    assert(regCount == MAX_RET_REG_COUNT);

    // Stack store
    int offset = 0;
    for (unsigned i = 0; i < regCount; ++i)
    {
        var_types type = retTypeDesc->GetReturnRegType(i);
        regNumber reg  = call->GetRegNumByIdx(i);
        if (op1->IsCopyOrReload())
        {
            // GT_COPY/GT_RELOAD will have valid reg for those positions
            // that need to be copied or reloaded.
            regNumber reloadReg = op1->AsCopyOrReload()->GetRegNumByIdx(i);
            if (reloadReg != REG_NA)
            {
                reg = reloadReg;
            }
        }

        assert(reg != REG_NA);
        getEmitter()->emitIns_S_R(ins_Store(type), emitTypeSize(type), reg, lclNum, offset);
        offset += genTypeSize(type);
    }

    varDsc->lvRegNum            = REG_STK;
#else  // !FEATURE_UNIX_AMD64_STRUCT_PASSING && !_TARGET_X86_
    assert(!"Unreached");
#endif // !FEATURE_UNIX_AMD64_STRUCT_PASSING && !_TARGET_X86_
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genLclHeap: Generate code for localloc.
//
// Arguments:
//      tree - the localloc tree to generate.
//
// Notes:
//      Note that for x86, we don't track ESP movements while generating the localloc code.
//      The ESP tracking is used to report stack pointer-relative GC info, which is not
//      interesting while doing the localloc construction. Also, for functions with localloc,
//      we have EBP frames, and EBP-relative locals, and ESP-relative accesses only for function
//      call arguments. We store the ESP after the localloc is complete in the LocAllocSP
//      variable. This variable is implicitly reported to the VM in the GC info (its position
//      is defined by convention relative to other items), and is used by the GC to find the
//      "base" stack pointer in functions with localloc.
//
void CodeGen::genLclHeap(GenTreePtr tree)
{
    assert(tree->OperGet() == GT_LCLHEAP);
    assert(compiler->compLocallocUsed);

    GenTreePtr size = tree->gtOp.gtOp1;
    noway_assert((genActualType(size->gtType) == TYP_INT) || (genActualType(size->gtType) == TYP_I_IMPL));

    regNumber   targetReg   = tree->gtRegNum;
    regMaskTP   tmpRegsMask = tree->gtRsvdRegs;
    regNumber   regCnt      = REG_NA;
    var_types   type        = genActualType(size->gtType);
    emitAttr    easz        = emitTypeSize(type);
    BasicBlock* endLabel    = nullptr;

#ifdef DEBUG
    // Verify ESP
    if (compiler->opts.compStackCheckOnRet)
    {
        noway_assert(compiler->lvaReturnEspCheck != 0xCCCCCCCC &&
                     compiler->lvaTable[compiler->lvaReturnEspCheck].lvDoNotEnregister &&
                     compiler->lvaTable[compiler->lvaReturnEspCheck].lvOnFrame);
        getEmitter()->emitIns_S_R(INS_cmp, EA_PTRSIZE, REG_SPBASE, compiler->lvaReturnEspCheck, 0);

        BasicBlock*  esp_check = genCreateTempLabel();
        emitJumpKind jmpEqual  = genJumpKindForOper(GT_EQ, CK_SIGNED);
        inst_JMP(jmpEqual, esp_check);
        getEmitter()->emitIns(INS_BREAKPOINT);
        genDefineTempLabel(esp_check);
    }
#endif

    noway_assert(isFramePointerUsed()); // localloc requires Frame Pointer to be established since SP changes
    noway_assert(genStackLevel == 0);   // Can't have anything on the stack

    unsigned    stackAdjustment = 0;
    BasicBlock* loop            = nullptr;

    // compute the amount of memory to allocate to properly STACK_ALIGN.
    size_t amount = 0;
    if (size->IsCnsIntOrI())
    {
        // If size is a constant, then it must be contained.
        assert(size->isContained());

        // If amount is zero then return null in targetReg
        amount = size->gtIntCon.gtIconVal;
        if (amount == 0)
        {
            instGen_Set_Reg_To_Zero(EA_PTRSIZE, targetReg);
            goto BAILOUT;
        }

        // 'amount' is the total number of bytes to localloc to properly STACK_ALIGN
        amount = AlignUp(amount, STACK_ALIGN);
    }
    else
    {
        // The localloc requested memory size is non-constant.

        // Put the size value in targetReg. If it is zero, bail out by returning null in targetReg.
        genConsumeRegAndCopy(size, targetReg);
        endLabel = genCreateTempLabel();
        getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R(INS_test, easz, targetReg, targetReg);
        inst_JMP(EJ_je, endLabel);

        // Compute the size of the block to allocate and perform alignment.
        // If compInitMem=true, we can reuse targetReg as regcnt,
        // since we don't need any internal registers.
        if (compiler->info.compInitMem)
        {
            assert(genCountBits(tmpRegsMask) == 0);
            regCnt = targetReg;
        }
        else
        {
            assert(genCountBits(tmpRegsMask) >= 1);
            regMaskTP regCntMask = genFindLowestBit(tmpRegsMask);
            tmpRegsMask &= ~regCntMask;
            regCnt = genRegNumFromMask(regCntMask);
            if (regCnt != targetReg)
            {
                // Above, we put the size in targetReg. Now, copy it to our new temp register if necessary.
                inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, regCnt, targetReg, size->TypeGet());
            }
        }

        // Round up the number of bytes to allocate to a STACK_ALIGN boundary. This is done
        // by code like:
        //      add reg, 15
        //      and reg, -16
        // However, in the initialized memory case, we need the count of STACK_ALIGN-sized
        // elements, not a byte count, after the alignment. So instead of the "and", which
        // becomes unnecessary, generate a shift, e.g.:
        //      add reg, 15
        //      shr reg, 4

        inst_RV_IV(INS_add, regCnt, STACK_ALIGN - 1, emitActualTypeSize(type));

        if (compiler->info.compInitMem)
        {
            // Convert the count from a count of bytes to a loop count. We will loop once per
            // stack alignment size, so each loop will zero 4 bytes on x86 and 16 bytes on x64.
            // Note that we zero a single reg-size word per iteration on x86, and 2 reg-size
            // words per iteration on x64. We will shift off all the stack alignment bits
            // added above, so there is no need for an 'and' instruction.

            // --- shr regCnt, 2 (or 4) ---
            inst_RV_SH(INS_SHIFT_RIGHT_LOGICAL, EA_PTRSIZE, regCnt, STACK_ALIGN_SHIFT_ALL);
        }
        else
        {
            // Otherwise, mask off the low bits to align the byte count.
            inst_RV_IV(INS_AND, regCnt, ~(STACK_ALIGN - 1), emitActualTypeSize(type));
        }
    }

#if FEATURE_FIXED_OUT_ARGS
    // If we have an outgoing arg area then we must adjust the SP by popping off the
    // outgoing arg area. We will restore it right before we return from this method.
    //
    // Localloc returns stack space that aligned to STACK_ALIGN bytes. The following
    // are the cases that need to be handled:
    //   i) Method has out-going arg area.
    //      It is guaranteed that size of out-going arg area is STACK_ALIGN'ed (see fgMorphArgs).
    //      Therefore, we will pop off the out-going arg area from RSP before allocating the localloc space.
    //  ii) Method has no out-going arg area.
    //      Nothing to pop off from the stack.
    if (compiler->lvaOutgoingArgSpaceSize > 0)
    {
        assert((compiler->lvaOutgoingArgSpaceSize % STACK_ALIGN) == 0); // This must be true for the stack to remain
                                                                        // aligned
        inst_RV_IV(INS_add, REG_SPBASE, compiler->lvaOutgoingArgSpaceSize, EA_PTRSIZE);
        stackAdjustment += compiler->lvaOutgoingArgSpaceSize;
    }
#endif

    if (size->IsCnsIntOrI())
    {
        // We should reach here only for non-zero, constant size allocations.
        assert(amount > 0);
        assert((amount % STACK_ALIGN) == 0);
        assert((amount % REGSIZE_BYTES) == 0);

        // For small allocations we will generate up to six push 0 inline
        size_t cntRegSizedWords = amount / REGSIZE_BYTES;
        if (cntRegSizedWords <= 6)
        {
            for (; cntRegSizedWords != 0; cntRegSizedWords--)
            {
                inst_IV(INS_push_hide, 0); // push_hide means don't track the stack
            }
            goto ALLOC_DONE;
        }

        bool doNoInitLessThanOnePageAlloc =
            !compiler->info.compInitMem && (amount < compiler->eeGetPageSize()); // must be < not <=

#ifdef _TARGET_X86_
        bool needRegCntRegister = true;
#else  // !_TARGET_X86_
        bool needRegCntRegister = !doNoInitLessThanOnePageAlloc;
#endif // !_TARGET_X86_

        if (needRegCntRegister)
        {
            // If compInitMem=true, we can reuse targetReg as regcnt.
            // Since size is a constant, regCnt is not yet initialized.
            assert(regCnt == REG_NA);
            if (compiler->info.compInitMem)
            {
                assert(genCountBits(tmpRegsMask) == 0);
                regCnt = targetReg;
            }
            else
            {
                assert(genCountBits(tmpRegsMask) >= 1);
                regMaskTP regCntMask = genFindLowestBit(tmpRegsMask);
                tmpRegsMask &= ~regCntMask;
                regCnt = genRegNumFromMask(regCntMask);
            }
        }

        if (doNoInitLessThanOnePageAlloc)
        {
            // Since the size is less than a page, simply adjust ESP.
            // ESP might already be in the guard page, so we must touch it BEFORE
            // the alloc, not after.
            CLANG_FORMAT_COMMENT_ANCHOR;

#ifdef _TARGET_X86_
            // For x86, we don't want to use "sub ESP" because we don't want the emitter to track the adjustment
            // to ESP. So do the work in the count register.
            // TODO-CQ: manipulate ESP directly, to share code, reduce #ifdefs, and improve CQ. This would require
            // creating a way to temporarily turn off the emitter's tracking of ESP, maybe marking instrDescs as "don't
            // track".
            inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, regCnt, REG_SPBASE, TYP_I_IMPL);
            getEmitter()->emitIns_AR_R(INS_TEST, EA_4BYTE, REG_SPBASE, REG_SPBASE, 0);
            inst_RV_IV(INS_sub, regCnt, amount, EA_PTRSIZE);
            inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, REG_SPBASE, regCnt, TYP_I_IMPL);
#else  // !_TARGET_X86_
            getEmitter()->emitIns_AR_R(INS_TEST, EA_4BYTE, REG_SPBASE, REG_SPBASE, 0);
            inst_RV_IV(INS_sub, REG_SPBASE, amount, EA_PTRSIZE);
#endif // !_TARGET_X86_

            goto ALLOC_DONE;
        }

        // else, "mov regCnt, amount"

        if (compiler->info.compInitMem)
        {
            // When initializing memory, we want 'amount' to be the loop count.
            assert((amount % STACK_ALIGN) == 0);
            amount /= STACK_ALIGN;
        }

        genSetRegToIcon(regCnt, amount, ((int)amount == amount) ? TYP_INT : TYP_LONG);
    }

    loop = genCreateTempLabel();
    if (compiler->info.compInitMem)
    {
        // At this point 'regCnt' is set to the number of loop iterations for this loop, if each
        // iteration zeros (and subtracts from the stack pointer) STACK_ALIGN bytes.
        // Since we have to zero out the allocated memory AND ensure that RSP is always valid
        // by tickling the pages, we will just push 0's on the stack.

        assert(genIsValidIntReg(regCnt));

        // Loop:
        genDefineTempLabel(loop);

#if defined(_TARGET_AMD64_)
        // Push two 8-byte zeros. This matches the 16-byte STACK_ALIGN value.
        static_assert_no_msg(STACK_ALIGN == (REGSIZE_BYTES * 2));
        inst_IV(INS_push_hide, 0); // --- push 8-byte 0
        inst_IV(INS_push_hide, 0); // --- push 8-byte 0
#elif defined(_TARGET_X86_)
        // Push a single 4-byte zero. This matches the 4-byte STACK_ALIGN value.
        static_assert_no_msg(STACK_ALIGN == REGSIZE_BYTES);
        inst_IV(INS_push_hide, 0); // --- push 4-byte 0
#endif // _TARGET_X86_

        // Decrement the loop counter and loop if not done.
        inst_RV(INS_dec, regCnt, TYP_I_IMPL);
        inst_JMP(EJ_jne, loop);
    }
    else
    {
        // At this point 'regCnt' is set to the total number of bytes to localloc.
        //
        // We don't need to zero out the allocated memory. However, we do have
        // to tickle the pages to ensure that ESP is always valid and is
        // in sync with the "stack guard page".  Note that in the worst
        // case ESP is on the last byte of the guard page.  Thus you must
        // touch ESP+0 first not ESP+x01000.
        //
        // Another subtlety is that you don't want ESP to be exactly on the
        // boundary of the guard page because PUSH is predecrement, thus
        // call setup would not touch the guard page but just beyond it
        //
        // Note that we go through a few hoops so that ESP never points to
        // illegal pages at any time during the tickling process
        //
        //       neg   REGCNT
        //       add   REGCNT, ESP      // reg now holds ultimate ESP
        //       jb    loop             // result is smaller than orignial ESP (no wrap around)
        //       xor   REGCNT, REGCNT,  // Overflow, pick lowest possible number
        //  loop:
        //       test  ESP, [ESP+0]     // tickle the page
        //       mov   REGTMP, ESP
        //       sub   REGTMP, PAGE_SIZE
        //       mov   ESP, REGTMP
        //       cmp   ESP, REGCNT
        //       jae   loop
        //
        //       mov   ESP, REG
        //  end:
        inst_RV(INS_NEG, regCnt, TYP_I_IMPL);
        inst_RV_RV(INS_add, regCnt, REG_SPBASE, TYP_I_IMPL);
        inst_JMP(EJ_jb, loop);

        instGen_Set_Reg_To_Zero(EA_PTRSIZE, regCnt);

        genDefineTempLabel(loop);

        // Tickle the decremented value, and move back to ESP,
        // note that it has to be done BEFORE the update of ESP since
        // ESP might already be on the guard page.  It is OK to leave
        // the final value of ESP on the guard page
        getEmitter()->emitIns_AR_R(INS_TEST, EA_4BYTE, REG_SPBASE, REG_SPBASE, 0);

        // This is a harmless trick to avoid the emitter trying to track the
        // decrement of the ESP - we do the subtraction in another reg instead
        // of adjusting ESP directly.
        assert(tmpRegsMask != RBM_NONE);
        assert(genCountBits(tmpRegsMask) == 1);
        regNumber regTmp = genRegNumFromMask(tmpRegsMask);

        inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, regTmp, REG_SPBASE, TYP_I_IMPL);
        inst_RV_IV(INS_sub, regTmp, compiler->eeGetPageSize(), EA_PTRSIZE);
        inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, REG_SPBASE, regTmp, TYP_I_IMPL);

        inst_RV_RV(INS_cmp, REG_SPBASE, regCnt, TYP_I_IMPL);
        inst_JMP(EJ_jae, loop);

        // Move the final value to ESP
        inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, REG_SPBASE, regCnt);
    }

ALLOC_DONE:
    // Re-adjust SP to allocate out-going arg area
    if (stackAdjustment > 0)
    {
        assert((stackAdjustment % STACK_ALIGN) == 0); // This must be true for the stack to remain aligned
        inst_RV_IV(INS_sub, REG_SPBASE, stackAdjustment, EA_PTRSIZE);
    }

    // Return the stackalloc'ed address in result register.
    // TargetReg = RSP + stackAdjustment.
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_AR(INS_lea, EA_PTRSIZE, targetReg, REG_SPBASE, stackAdjustment);

    if (endLabel != nullptr)
    {
        genDefineTempLabel(endLabel);
    }

BAILOUT:

    // Write the lvaLocAllocSPvar stack frame slot
    noway_assert(compiler->lvaLocAllocSPvar != BAD_VAR_NUM);
    getEmitter()->emitIns_S_R(ins_Store(TYP_I_IMPL), EA_PTRSIZE, REG_SPBASE, compiler->lvaLocAllocSPvar, 0);

#if STACK_PROBES
    if (compiler->opts.compNeedStackProbes)
    {
        genGenerateStackProbe();
    }
#endif

#ifdef DEBUG
    // Update new ESP
    if (compiler->opts.compStackCheckOnRet)
    {
        noway_assert(compiler->lvaReturnEspCheck != 0xCCCCCCCC &&
                     compiler->lvaTable[compiler->lvaReturnEspCheck].lvDoNotEnregister &&
                     compiler->lvaTable[compiler->lvaReturnEspCheck].lvOnFrame);
        getEmitter()->emitIns_S_R(ins_Store(TYP_I_IMPL), EA_PTRSIZE, REG_SPBASE, compiler->lvaReturnEspCheck, 0);
    }
#endif

    genProduceReg(tree);
}

void CodeGen::genCodeForStoreBlk(GenTreeBlk* storeBlkNode)
{
    if (storeBlkNode->gtBlkOpGcUnsafe)
    {
        getEmitter()->emitDisableGC();
    }
    bool isCopyBlk = storeBlkNode->OperIsCopyBlkOp();

    switch (storeBlkNode->gtBlkOpKind)
    {
#ifdef _TARGET_AMD64_
        case GenTreeBlk::BlkOpKindHelper:
            if (isCopyBlk)
            {
                genCodeForCpBlk(storeBlkNode);
            }
            else
            {
                genCodeForInitBlk(storeBlkNode);
            }
            break;
#endif // _TARGET_AMD64_
        case GenTreeBlk::BlkOpKindRepInstr:
            if (isCopyBlk)
            {
                genCodeForCpBlkRepMovs(storeBlkNode);
            }
            else
            {
                genCodeForInitBlkRepStos(storeBlkNode);
            }
            break;
        case GenTreeBlk::BlkOpKindUnroll:
            if (isCopyBlk)
            {
                genCodeForCpBlkUnroll(storeBlkNode);
            }
            else
            {
                genCodeForInitBlkUnroll(storeBlkNode);
            }
            break;
        default:
            unreached();
    }
    if (storeBlkNode->gtBlkOpGcUnsafe)
    {
        getEmitter()->emitEnableGC();
    }
}

// Generate code for InitBlk using rep stos.
// Preconditions:
//  The size of the buffers must be a constant and also less than INITBLK_STOS_LIMIT bytes.
//  Any value larger than that, we'll use the helper even if both the
//  fill byte and the size are integer constants.
void CodeGen::genCodeForInitBlkRepStos(GenTreeBlk* initBlkNode)
{
    // Make sure we got the arguments of the initblk/initobj operation in the right registers
    unsigned   size    = initBlkNode->Size();
    GenTreePtr dstAddr = initBlkNode->Addr();
    GenTreePtr initVal = initBlkNode->Data();

#ifdef DEBUG
    assert(!dstAddr->isContained());
    assert(!initVal->isContained());
#ifdef _TARGET_AMD64_
    assert(size != 0);
#endif
    if (initVal->IsCnsIntOrI())
    {
#ifdef _TARGET_AMD64_
        assert(size > CPBLK_UNROLL_LIMIT && size < CPBLK_MOVS_LIMIT);
#else
        assert(size > CPBLK_UNROLL_LIMIT);
#endif
    }

#endif // DEBUG

    genConsumeBlockOp(initBlkNode, REG_RDI, REG_RAX, REG_RCX);
    instGen(INS_r_stosb);
}

// Generate code for InitBlk by performing a loop unroll
// Preconditions:
//   a) Both the size and fill byte value are integer constants.
//   b) The size of the struct to initialize is smaller than INITBLK_UNROLL_LIMIT bytes.
//
void CodeGen::genCodeForInitBlkUnroll(GenTreeBlk* initBlkNode)
{
    // Make sure we got the arguments of the initblk/initobj operation in the right registers
    unsigned   size    = initBlkNode->Size();
    GenTreePtr dstAddr = initBlkNode->Addr();
    GenTreePtr initVal = initBlkNode->Data();

    assert(!dstAddr->isContained());
    assert(!initVal->isContained());
    assert(size != 0);
    assert(size <= INITBLK_UNROLL_LIMIT);
    assert(initVal->gtSkipReloadOrCopy()->IsCnsIntOrI());

    emitter* emit = getEmitter();

    genConsumeOperands(initBlkNode);

    // If the initVal was moved, or spilled and reloaded to a different register,
    // get the original initVal from below the GT_RELOAD, but only after capturing the valReg,
    // which needs to be the new register.
    regNumber valReg = initVal->gtRegNum;
    initVal          = initVal->gtSkipReloadOrCopy();

    unsigned offset = 0;

    // Perform an unroll using SSE2 loads and stores.
    if (size >= XMM_REGSIZE_BYTES)
    {
        regNumber tmpReg = genRegNumFromMask(initBlkNode->gtRsvdRegs);

#ifdef DEBUG
        assert(initBlkNode->gtRsvdRegs != RBM_NONE);
        assert(genCountBits(initBlkNode->gtRsvdRegs) == 1);
        assert(genIsValidFloatReg(tmpReg));
#endif // DEBUG

        if (initVal->gtIntCon.gtIconVal != 0)
        {
            emit->emitIns_R_R(INS_mov_i2xmm, EA_PTRSIZE, tmpReg, valReg);
            emit->emitIns_R_R(INS_punpckldq, EA_8BYTE, tmpReg, tmpReg);
#ifdef _TARGET_X86_
            // For x86, we need one more to convert it from 8 bytes to 16 bytes.
            emit->emitIns_R_R(INS_punpckldq, EA_8BYTE, tmpReg, tmpReg);
#endif // _TARGET_X86_
        }
        else
        {
            emit->emitIns_R_R(INS_xorpd, EA_8BYTE, tmpReg, tmpReg);
        }

        // Determine how many 16 byte slots we're going to fill using SSE movs.
        size_t slots = size / XMM_REGSIZE_BYTES;

        while (slots-- > 0)
        {
            emit->emitIns_AR_R(INS_movdqu, EA_8BYTE, tmpReg, dstAddr->gtRegNum, offset);
            offset += XMM_REGSIZE_BYTES;
        }
    }

    // Fill the remainder (or a < 16 byte sized struct)
    if ((size & 8) != 0)
    {
#ifdef _TARGET_X86_
        // TODO-X86-CQ: [1091735] Revisit block ops codegen. One example: use movq for 8 byte movs.
        emit->emitIns_AR_R(INS_mov, EA_4BYTE, valReg, dstAddr->gtRegNum, offset);
        offset += 4;
        emit->emitIns_AR_R(INS_mov, EA_4BYTE, valReg, dstAddr->gtRegNum, offset);
        offset += 4;
#else  // !_TARGET_X86_
        emit->emitIns_AR_R(INS_mov, EA_8BYTE, valReg, dstAddr->gtRegNum, offset);
        offset += 8;
#endif // !_TARGET_X86_
    }
    if ((size & 4) != 0)
    {
        emit->emitIns_AR_R(INS_mov, EA_4BYTE, valReg, dstAddr->gtRegNum, offset);
        offset += 4;
    }
    if ((size & 2) != 0)
    {
        emit->emitIns_AR_R(INS_mov, EA_2BYTE, valReg, dstAddr->gtRegNum, offset);
        offset += 2;
    }
    if ((size & 1) != 0)
    {
        emit->emitIns_AR_R(INS_mov, EA_1BYTE, valReg, dstAddr->gtRegNum, offset);
    }
}

// Generates code for InitBlk by calling the VM memset helper function.
// Preconditions:
// a) The size argument of the InitBlk is not an integer constant.
// b) The size argument of the InitBlk is >= INITBLK_STOS_LIMIT bytes.
void CodeGen::genCodeForInitBlk(GenTreeBlk* initBlkNode)
{
#ifdef _TARGET_AMD64_
    // Make sure we got the arguments of the initblk operation in the right registers
    unsigned   blockSize = initBlkNode->Size();
    GenTreePtr dstAddr   = initBlkNode->Addr();
    GenTreePtr initVal   = initBlkNode->Data();

    assert(!dstAddr->isContained());
    assert(!initVal->isContained());

    if (blockSize != 0)
    {
        assert(blockSize >= CPBLK_MOVS_LIMIT);
    }

    genConsumeBlockOp(initBlkNode, REG_ARG_0, REG_ARG_1, REG_ARG_2);

    genEmitHelperCall(CORINFO_HELP_MEMSET, 0, EA_UNKNOWN);
#else  // !_TARGET_AMD64_
    NYI_X86("Helper call for InitBlk");
#endif // !_TARGET_AMD64_
}

// Generate code for a load from some address + offset
//   baseNode: tree node which can be either a local address or arbitrary node
//   offset: distance from the baseNode from which to load
void CodeGen::genCodeForLoadOffset(instruction ins, emitAttr size, regNumber dst, GenTree* baseNode, unsigned offset)
{
    emitter* emit = getEmitter();

    if (baseNode->OperIsLocalAddr())
    {
        if (baseNode->gtOper == GT_LCL_FLD_ADDR)
        {
            offset += baseNode->gtLclFld.gtLclOffs;
        }
        emit->emitIns_R_S(ins, size, dst, baseNode->gtLclVarCommon.gtLclNum, offset);
    }
    else
    {
        emit->emitIns_R_AR(ins, size, dst, baseNode->gtRegNum, offset);
    }
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genCodeForStoreOffset: Generate code to store a reg to [base + offset].
//
// Arguments:
//      ins         - the instruction to generate.
//      size        - the size that needs to be stored.
//      src         - the register which needs to be stored.
//      baseNode    - the base, relative to which to store the src register.
//      offset      - the offset that is added to the baseNode to calculate the address to store into.
//
void CodeGen::genCodeForStoreOffset(instruction ins, emitAttr size, regNumber src, GenTree* baseNode, unsigned offset)
{
    emitter* emit = getEmitter();

    if (baseNode->OperIsLocalAddr())
    {
        if (baseNode->gtOper == GT_LCL_FLD_ADDR)
        {
            offset += baseNode->gtLclFld.gtLclOffs;
        }

        emit->emitIns_S_R(ins, size, src, baseNode->AsLclVarCommon()->GetLclNum(), offset);
    }
    else
    {
        emit->emitIns_AR_R(ins, size, src, baseNode->gtRegNum, offset);
    }
}

// Generates CpBlk code by performing a loop unroll
// Preconditions:
//  The size argument of the CpBlk node is a constant and <= 64 bytes.
//  This may seem small but covers >95% of the cases in several framework assemblies.
//
void CodeGen::genCodeForCpBlkUnroll(GenTreeBlk* cpBlkNode)
{
    // Make sure we got the arguments of the cpblk operation in the right registers
    unsigned   size    = cpBlkNode->Size();
    GenTreePtr dstAddr = cpBlkNode->Addr();
    GenTreePtr source  = cpBlkNode->Data();
    GenTreePtr srcAddr = nullptr;
    assert(size <= CPBLK_UNROLL_LIMIT);

    emitter* emit = getEmitter();

    if (source->gtOper == GT_IND)
    {
        srcAddr = source->gtGetOp1();
        if (!srcAddr->isContained())
        {
            genConsumeReg(srcAddr);
        }
    }
    else
    {
        noway_assert(source->IsLocal());
        // TODO-Cleanup: Consider making the addrForm() method in Rationalize public, e.g. in GenTree.
        // OR: transform source to GT_IND(GT_LCL_VAR_ADDR)
        if (source->OperGet() == GT_LCL_VAR)
        {
            source->SetOper(GT_LCL_VAR_ADDR);
        }
        else
        {
            assert(source->OperGet() == GT_LCL_FLD);
            source->SetOper(GT_LCL_FLD_ADDR);
        }
        srcAddr = source;
    }

    if (!dstAddr->isContained())
    {
        genConsumeReg(dstAddr);
    }

    unsigned offset = 0;

    // If the size of this struct is larger than 16 bytes
    // let's use SSE2 to be able to do 16 byte at a time
    // loads and stores.

    if (size >= XMM_REGSIZE_BYTES)
    {
        assert(cpBlkNode->gtRsvdRegs != RBM_NONE);
        regNumber xmmReg = genRegNumFromMask(cpBlkNode->gtRsvdRegs & RBM_ALLFLOAT);
        assert(genIsValidFloatReg(xmmReg));
        size_t slots = size / XMM_REGSIZE_BYTES;

        // TODO: In the below code the load and store instructions are for 16 bytes, but the
        //       type is EA_8BYTE. The movdqa/u are 16 byte instructions, so it works, but
        //       this probably needs to be changed.
        while (slots-- > 0)
        {
            // Load
            genCodeForLoadOffset(INS_movdqu, EA_8BYTE, xmmReg, srcAddr, offset);
            // Store
            genCodeForStoreOffset(INS_movdqu, EA_8BYTE, xmmReg, dstAddr, offset);
            offset += XMM_REGSIZE_BYTES;
        }
    }

    // Fill the remainder (15 bytes or less) if there's one.
    if ((size & 0xf) != 0)
    {
        // Grab the integer temp register to emit the remaining loads and stores.
        regNumber tmpReg = genRegNumFromMask(cpBlkNode->gtRsvdRegs & RBM_ALLINT);

        if ((size & 8) != 0)
        {
#ifdef _TARGET_X86_
            // TODO-X86-CQ: [1091735] Revisit block ops codegen. One example: use movq for 8 byte movs.
            for (unsigned savedOffs = offset; offset < savedOffs + 8; offset += 4)
            {
                genCodeForLoadOffset(INS_mov, EA_4BYTE, tmpReg, srcAddr, offset);
                genCodeForStoreOffset(INS_mov, EA_4BYTE, tmpReg, dstAddr, offset);
            }
#else  // !_TARGET_X86_
            genCodeForLoadOffset(INS_mov, EA_8BYTE, tmpReg, srcAddr, offset);
            genCodeForStoreOffset(INS_mov, EA_8BYTE, tmpReg, dstAddr, offset);
            offset += 8;
#endif // !_TARGET_X86_
        }
        if ((size & 4) != 0)
        {
            genCodeForLoadOffset(INS_mov, EA_4BYTE, tmpReg, srcAddr, offset);
            genCodeForStoreOffset(INS_mov, EA_4BYTE, tmpReg, dstAddr, offset);
            offset += 4;
        }
        if ((size & 2) != 0)
        {
            genCodeForLoadOffset(INS_mov, EA_2BYTE, tmpReg, srcAddr, offset);
            genCodeForStoreOffset(INS_mov, EA_2BYTE, tmpReg, dstAddr, offset);
            offset += 2;
        }
        if ((size & 1) != 0)
        {
            genCodeForLoadOffset(INS_mov, EA_1BYTE, tmpReg, srcAddr, offset);
            genCodeForStoreOffset(INS_mov, EA_1BYTE, tmpReg, dstAddr, offset);
        }
    }
}

// Generate code for CpBlk by using rep movs
// Preconditions:
// The size argument of the CpBlk is a constant and is between
// CPBLK_UNROLL_LIMIT and CPBLK_MOVS_LIMIT bytes.
void CodeGen::genCodeForCpBlkRepMovs(GenTreeBlk* cpBlkNode)
{
    // Make sure we got the arguments of the cpblk operation in the right registers
    unsigned   size    = cpBlkNode->Size();
    GenTreePtr dstAddr = cpBlkNode->Addr();
    GenTreePtr source  = cpBlkNode->Data();
    GenTreePtr srcAddr = nullptr;

#ifdef DEBUG
    assert(!dstAddr->isContained());
    assert(source->isContained());

#ifdef _TARGET_X86_
    if (size == 0)
    {
        noway_assert(cpBlkNode->OperGet() == GT_STORE_DYN_BLK);
    }
    else
#endif
    {
#ifdef _TARGET_X64_
        assert(size > CPBLK_UNROLL_LIMIT && size < CPBLK_MOVS_LIMIT);
#else
        assert(size > CPBLK_UNROLL_LIMIT);
#endif
    }
#endif // DEBUG

    genConsumeBlockOp(cpBlkNode, REG_RDI, REG_RSI, REG_RCX);
    instGen(INS_r_movsb);
}

#ifdef FEATURE_UNIX_AMD64_STRUCT_PASSING

//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------//
// genStructPutArgUnroll: Generates code for passing a struct arg on stack by value using loop unrolling.
//
// Arguments:
//     putArgNode  - the PutArgStk tree.
//     baseVarNum  - the base var number, relative to which the by-val struct will be copied on the stack.
//
// TODO-Amd64-Unix: Try to share code with copyblk.
//      Need refactoring of copyblk before it could be used for putarg_stk.
//      The difference for now is that a putarg_stk contains its children, while cpyblk does not.
//      This creates differences in code. After some significant refactoring it could be reused.
//
void CodeGen::genStructPutArgUnroll(GenTreePutArgStk* putArgNode, unsigned baseVarNum)
{
    // We will never call this method for SIMD types, which are stored directly
    // in genPutStructArgStk().
    noway_assert(putArgNode->TypeGet() == TYP_STRUCT);

    // Make sure we got the arguments of the cpblk operation in the right registers
    GenTreePtr dstAddr = putArgNode;
    GenTreePtr src     = putArgNode->gtOp.gtOp1;

    size_t size = putArgNode->getArgSize();
    assert(size <= CPBLK_UNROLL_LIMIT);

    emitter* emit         = getEmitter();
    unsigned putArgOffset = putArgNode->getArgOffset();

    assert(src->isContained());

    assert(src->gtOper == GT_OBJ);

    if (!src->gtOp.gtOp1->isContained())
    {
        genConsumeReg(src->gtOp.gtOp1);
    }

    unsigned offset = 0;

    // If the size of this struct is larger than 16 bytes
    // let's use SSE2 to be able to do 16 byte at a time
    // loads and stores.
    if (size >= XMM_REGSIZE_BYTES)
    {
        assert(putArgNode->gtRsvdRegs != RBM_NONE);
        regNumber xmmReg = genRegNumFromMask(putArgNode->gtRsvdRegs & RBM_ALLFLOAT);
        assert(genIsValidFloatReg(xmmReg));
        size_t slots = size / XMM_REGSIZE_BYTES;

        assert(putArgNode->gtGetOp1()->isContained());
        assert(putArgNode->gtGetOp1()->gtOp.gtOper == GT_OBJ);

        // TODO: In the below code the load and store instructions are for 16 bytes, but the
        //          type is EA_8BYTE. The movdqa/u are 16 byte instructions, so it works, but
        //          this probably needs to be changed.
        while (slots-- > 0)
        {
            // Load
            genCodeForLoadOffset(INS_movdqu, EA_8BYTE, xmmReg, src->gtGetOp1(),
                                 offset); // Load the address of the child of the Obj node.

            // Store
            emit->emitIns_S_R(INS_movdqu, EA_8BYTE, xmmReg, baseVarNum, putArgOffset + offset);

            offset += XMM_REGSIZE_BYTES;
        }
    }

    // Fill the remainder (15 bytes or less) if there's one.
    if ((size & 0xf) != 0)
    {
        // Grab the integer temp register to emit the remaining loads and stores.
        regNumber tmpReg = genRegNumFromMask(putArgNode->gtRsvdRegs & RBM_ALLINT);
        assert(genIsValidIntReg(tmpReg));

        if ((size & 8) != 0)
        {
            genCodeForLoadOffset(INS_mov, EA_8BYTE, tmpReg, src->gtOp.gtOp1, offset);

            emit->emitIns_S_R(INS_mov, EA_8BYTE, tmpReg, baseVarNum, putArgOffset + offset);

            offset += 8;
        }

        if ((size & 4) != 0)
        {
            genCodeForLoadOffset(INS_mov, EA_4BYTE, tmpReg, src->gtOp.gtOp1, offset);

            emit->emitIns_S_R(INS_mov, EA_4BYTE, tmpReg, baseVarNum, putArgOffset + offset);

            offset += 4;
        }

        if ((size & 2) != 0)
        {
            genCodeForLoadOffset(INS_mov, EA_2BYTE, tmpReg, src->gtOp.gtOp1, offset);

            emit->emitIns_S_R(INS_mov, EA_2BYTE, tmpReg, baseVarNum, putArgOffset + offset);

            offset += 2;
        }

        if ((size & 1) != 0)
        {
            genCodeForLoadOffset(INS_mov, EA_1BYTE, tmpReg, src->gtOp.gtOp1, offset);
            emit->emitIns_S_R(INS_mov, EA_1BYTE, tmpReg, baseVarNum, putArgOffset + offset);
        }
    }
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genStructPutArgRepMovs: Generates code for passing a struct arg by value on stack using Rep Movs.
//
// Arguments:
//     putArgNode  - the PutArgStk tree.
//     baseVarNum  - the base var number, relative to which the by-val struct bits will go.
//
// Preconditions:
//     The size argument of the PutArgStk (for structs) is a constant and is between
//     CPBLK_UNROLL_LIMIT and CPBLK_MOVS_LIMIT bytes.
//
void CodeGen::genStructPutArgRepMovs(GenTreePutArgStk* putArgNode, unsigned baseVarNum)
{
    assert(putArgNode->TypeGet() == TYP_STRUCT);
    assert(putArgNode->getArgSize() > CPBLK_UNROLL_LIMIT);
    assert(baseVarNum != BAD_VAR_NUM);

    // Make sure we got the arguments of the cpblk operation in the right registers
    GenTreePtr dstAddr = putArgNode;
    GenTreePtr srcAddr = putArgNode->gtGetOp1();

    // Validate state.
    assert(putArgNode->gtRsvdRegs == (RBM_RDI | RBM_RCX | RBM_RSI));
    assert(srcAddr->isContained());

    genConsumePutStructArgStk(putArgNode, REG_RDI, REG_RSI, REG_RCX, baseVarNum);
    instGen(INS_r_movsb);
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// If any Vector3 args are on stack and they are not pass-by-ref, the upper 32bits
// must be cleared to zeroes. The native compiler doesn't clear the upper bits
// and there is no way to know if the caller is native or not. So, the upper
// 32 bits of Vector argument on stack are always cleared to zero.
#ifdef FEATURE_SIMD
void CodeGen::genClearStackVec3ArgUpperBits()
{
#ifdef DEBUG
    if (verbose)
        printf("*************** In genClearStackVec3ArgUpperBits()\n");
#endif

    assert(compiler->compGeneratingProlog);

    unsigned varNum = 0;

    for (unsigned varNum = 0; varNum < compiler->info.compArgsCount; varNum++)
    {
        LclVarDsc* varDsc = &(compiler->lvaTable[varNum]);
        assert(varDsc->lvIsParam);

        // Does var has simd12 type?
        if (varDsc->lvType != TYP_SIMD12)
        {
            continue;
        }

        if (!varDsc->lvIsRegArg)
        {
            // Clear the upper 32 bits by mov dword ptr [V_ARG_BASE+0xC], 0
            getEmitter()->emitIns_S_I(ins_Store(TYP_INT), EA_4BYTE, varNum, genTypeSize(TYP_FLOAT) * 3, 0);
        }
        else
        {
            // Assume that for x64 linux, an argument is fully in registers
            // or fully on stack.
            regNumber argReg = varDsc->GetOtherArgReg();

            // Clear the upper 32 bits by two shift instructions.
            // argReg = argReg << 96
            getEmitter()->emitIns_R_I(INS_pslldq, emitActualTypeSize(TYP_SIMD12), argReg, 12);
            // argReg = argReg >> 96
            getEmitter()->emitIns_R_I(INS_psrldq, emitActualTypeSize(TYP_SIMD12), argReg, 12);
        }
    }
}
#endif // FEATURE_SIMD
#endif // FEATURE_UNIX_AMD64_STRUCT_PASSING

// Generate code for CpObj nodes wich copy structs that have interleaved
// GC pointers.
// This will generate a sequence of movsq instructions for the cases of non-gc members
// and calls to the BY_REF_ASSIGN helper otherwise.
void CodeGen::genCodeForCpObj(GenTreeObj* cpObjNode)
{
    // Make sure we got the arguments of the cpobj operation in the right registers
    GenTreePtr dstAddr       = cpObjNode->Addr();
    GenTreePtr source        = cpObjNode->Data();
    GenTreePtr srcAddr       = nullptr;
    bool       sourceIsLocal = false;

    assert(source->isContained());
    if (source->gtOper == GT_IND)
    {
        srcAddr = source->gtGetOp1();
        assert(!srcAddr->isContained());
    }
    else
    {
        noway_assert(source->IsLocal());
        sourceIsLocal = true;
        // TODO: Consider making the addrForm() method in Rationalize public, e.g. in GenTree.
        // OR: transform source to GT_IND(GT_LCL_VAR_ADDR)
        if (source->OperGet() == GT_LCL_VAR)
        {
            source->SetOper(GT_LCL_VAR_ADDR);
        }
        else
        {
            assert(source->OperGet() == GT_LCL_FLD);
            source->SetOper(GT_LCL_FLD_ADDR);
        }
        srcAddr = source;
    }

    bool dstOnStack = dstAddr->OperIsLocalAddr();

#ifdef DEBUG
    bool isRepMovsqUsed = false;

    assert(!dstAddr->isContained());

    // If the GenTree node has data about GC pointers, this means we're dealing
    // with CpObj, so this requires special logic.
    assert(cpObjNode->gtGcPtrCount > 0);

    // MovSq instruction is used for copying non-gcref fields and it needs
    // src = RSI and dst = RDI.
    // Either these registers must not contain lclVars, or they must be dying or marked for spill.
    // This is because these registers are incremented as we go through the struct.
    GenTree* actualSrcAddr    = srcAddr->gtSkipReloadOrCopy();
    GenTree* actualDstAddr    = dstAddr->gtSkipReloadOrCopy();
    unsigned srcLclVarNum     = BAD_VAR_NUM;
    unsigned dstLclVarNum     = BAD_VAR_NUM;
    bool     isSrcAddrLiveOut = false;
    bool     isDstAddrLiveOut = false;
    if (genIsRegCandidateLocal(actualSrcAddr))
    {
        srcLclVarNum     = actualSrcAddr->AsLclVarCommon()->gtLclNum;
        isSrcAddrLiveOut = ((actualSrcAddr->gtFlags & (GTF_VAR_DEATH | GTF_SPILL)) == 0);
    }
    if (genIsRegCandidateLocal(actualDstAddr))
    {
        dstLclVarNum     = actualDstAddr->AsLclVarCommon()->gtLclNum;
        isDstAddrLiveOut = ((actualDstAddr->gtFlags & (GTF_VAR_DEATH | GTF_SPILL)) == 0);
    }
    assert((actualSrcAddr->gtRegNum != REG_RSI) || !isSrcAddrLiveOut ||
           ((srcLclVarNum == dstLclVarNum) && !isDstAddrLiveOut));
    assert((actualDstAddr->gtRegNum != REG_RDI) || !isDstAddrLiveOut ||
           ((srcLclVarNum == dstLclVarNum) && !isSrcAddrLiveOut));
#endif // DEBUG

    // Consume these registers.
    // They may now contain gc pointers (depending on their type; gcMarkRegPtrVal will "do the right thing").
    if (sourceIsLocal)
    {
        inst_RV_TT(INS_lea, REG_RSI, source, 0, EA_BYREF);
        genConsumeBlockOp(cpObjNode, REG_RDI, REG_NA, REG_NA);
    }
    else
    {
        genConsumeBlockOp(cpObjNode, REG_RDI, REG_RSI, REG_NA);
    }
    gcInfo.gcMarkRegPtrVal(REG_RSI, srcAddr->TypeGet());
    gcInfo.gcMarkRegPtrVal(REG_RDI, dstAddr->TypeGet());

    unsigned slots = cpObjNode->gtSlots;

    // If we can prove it's on the stack we don't need to use the write barrier.
    if (dstOnStack)
    {
        if (slots >= CPOBJ_NONGC_SLOTS_LIMIT)
        {
#ifdef DEBUG
            // If the destination of the CpObj is on the stack
            // make sure we allocated RCX to emit rep movsq.
            regNumber tmpReg = genRegNumFromMask(cpObjNode->gtRsvdRegs & RBM_ALLINT);
            assert(tmpReg == REG_RCX);
            isRepMovsqUsed = true;
#endif // DEBUG

            getEmitter()->emitIns_R_I(INS_mov, EA_4BYTE, REG_RCX, slots);
            instGen(INS_r_movsq);
        }
        else
        {
            // For small structs, it's better to emit a sequence of movsq than to
            // emit a rep movsq instruction.
            while (slots > 0)
            {
                instGen(INS_movsq);
                slots--;
            }
        }
    }
    else
    {
        BYTE*    gcPtrs     = cpObjNode->gtGcPtrs;
        unsigned gcPtrCount = cpObjNode->gtGcPtrCount;

        unsigned i = 0;
        while (i < slots)
        {
            switch (gcPtrs[i])
            {
                case TYPE_GC_NONE:
                    // Let's see if we can use rep movsq instead of a sequence of movsq instructions
                    // to save cycles and code size.
                    {
                        unsigned nonGcSlotCount = 0;

                        do
                        {
                            nonGcSlotCount++;
                            i++;
                        } while (i < slots && gcPtrs[i] == TYPE_GC_NONE);

                        // If we have a very small contiguous non-gc region, it's better just to
                        // emit a sequence of movsq instructions
                        if (nonGcSlotCount < CPOBJ_NONGC_SLOTS_LIMIT)
                        {
                            while (nonGcSlotCount > 0)
                            {
                                instGen(INS_movsq);
                                nonGcSlotCount--;
                            }
                        }
                        else
                        {
#ifdef DEBUG
                            // Otherwise, we can save code-size and improve CQ by emitting
                            // rep movsq
                            regNumber tmpReg = genRegNumFromMask(cpObjNode->gtRsvdRegs & RBM_ALLINT);
                            assert(tmpReg == REG_RCX);
                            isRepMovsqUsed = true;
#endif // DEBUG
                            getEmitter()->emitIns_R_I(INS_mov, EA_4BYTE, REG_RCX, nonGcSlotCount);
                            instGen(INS_r_movsq);
                        }
                    }
                    break;
                default:
                    // We have a GC pointer, call the memory barrier.
                    genEmitHelperCall(CORINFO_HELP_ASSIGN_BYREF, 0, EA_PTRSIZE);
                    gcPtrCount--;
                    i++;
            }
        }

        assert(gcPtrCount == 0);
    }

    // Clear the gcInfo for RSI and RDI.
    // While we normally update GC info prior to the last instruction that uses them,
    // these actually live into the helper call.
    gcInfo.gcMarkRegSetNpt(RBM_RSI);
    gcInfo.gcMarkRegSetNpt(RBM_RDI);
}

// Generate code for a CpBlk node by the means of the VM memcpy helper call
// Preconditions:
// a) The size argument of the CpBlk is not an integer constant
// b) The size argument is a constant but is larger than CPBLK_MOVS_LIMIT bytes.
void CodeGen::genCodeForCpBlk(GenTreeBlk* cpBlkNode)
{
#ifdef _TARGET_AMD64_
    // Make sure we got the arguments of the cpblk operation in the right registers
    unsigned   blockSize = cpBlkNode->Size();
    GenTreePtr dstAddr   = cpBlkNode->Addr();
    GenTreePtr source    = cpBlkNode->Data();
    GenTreePtr srcAddr   = nullptr;

    // Size goes in arg2
    if (blockSize != 0)
    {
        assert(blockSize >= CPBLK_MOVS_LIMIT);
        assert((cpBlkNode->gtRsvdRegs & RBM_ARG_2) != 0);
    }
    else
    {
        noway_assert(cpBlkNode->gtOper == GT_STORE_DYN_BLK);
    }

    // Source address goes in arg1
    if (source->gtOper == GT_IND)
    {
        srcAddr = source->gtGetOp1();
        assert(!srcAddr->isContained());
    }
    else
    {
        noway_assert(source->IsLocal());
        assert((cpBlkNode->gtRsvdRegs & RBM_ARG_1) != 0);
        inst_RV_TT(INS_lea, REG_ARG_1, source, 0, EA_BYREF);
    }

    genConsumeBlockOp(cpBlkNode, REG_ARG_0, REG_ARG_1, REG_ARG_2);

    genEmitHelperCall(CORINFO_HELP_MEMCPY, 0, EA_UNKNOWN);
#else  // !_TARGET_AMD64_
    noway_assert(false && "Helper call for CpBlk is not needed.");
#endif // !_TARGET_AMD64_
}

// generate code do a switch statement based on a table of ip-relative offsets
void CodeGen::genTableBasedSwitch(GenTree* treeNode)
{
    genConsumeOperands(treeNode->AsOp());
    regNumber idxReg  = treeNode->gtOp.gtOp1->gtRegNum;
    regNumber baseReg = treeNode->gtOp.gtOp2->gtRegNum;

    regNumber tmpReg = genRegNumFromMask(treeNode->gtRsvdRegs);

    // load the ip-relative offset (which is relative to start of fgFirstBB)
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_ARX(INS_mov, EA_4BYTE, baseReg, baseReg, idxReg, 4, 0);

    // add it to the absolute address of fgFirstBB
    compiler->fgFirstBB->bbFlags |= BBF_JMP_TARGET;
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_L(INS_lea, EA_PTR_DSP_RELOC, compiler->fgFirstBB, tmpReg);
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R(INS_add, EA_PTRSIZE, baseReg, tmpReg);
    // jmp baseReg
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R(INS_i_jmp, emitTypeSize(TYP_I_IMPL), baseReg);
}

// emits the table and an instruction to get the address of the first element
void CodeGen::genJumpTable(GenTree* treeNode)
{
    noway_assert(compiler->compCurBB->bbJumpKind == BBJ_SWITCH);
    assert(treeNode->OperGet() == GT_JMPTABLE);

    unsigned     jumpCount = compiler->compCurBB->bbJumpSwt->bbsCount;
    BasicBlock** jumpTable = compiler->compCurBB->bbJumpSwt->bbsDstTab;
    unsigned     jmpTabOffs;
    unsigned     jmpTabBase;

    jmpTabBase = getEmitter()->emitBBTableDataGenBeg(jumpCount, true);

    jmpTabOffs = 0;

    JITDUMP("\n      J_M%03u_DS%02u LABEL   DWORD\n", Compiler::s_compMethodsCount, jmpTabBase);

    for (unsigned i = 0; i < jumpCount; i++)
    {
        BasicBlock* target = *jumpTable++;
        noway_assert(target->bbFlags & BBF_JMP_TARGET);

        JITDUMP("            DD      L_M%03u_BB%02u\n", Compiler::s_compMethodsCount, target->bbNum);

        getEmitter()->emitDataGenData(i, target);
    };

    getEmitter()->emitDataGenEnd();

    // Access to inline data is 'abstracted' by a special type of static member
    // (produced by eeFindJitDataOffs) which the emitter recognizes as being a reference
    // to constant data, not a real static field.
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_C(INS_lea, emitTypeSize(TYP_I_IMPL), treeNode->gtRegNum,
                              compiler->eeFindJitDataOffs(jmpTabBase), 0);
    genProduceReg(treeNode);
}

// generate code for the locked operations:
// GT_LOCKADD, GT_XCHG, GT_XADD
void CodeGen::genLockedInstructions(GenTree* treeNode)
{
    GenTree*    data      = treeNode->gtOp.gtOp2;
    GenTree*    addr      = treeNode->gtOp.gtOp1;
    regNumber   targetReg = treeNode->gtRegNum;
    regNumber   dataReg   = data->gtRegNum;
    regNumber   addrReg   = addr->gtRegNum;
    instruction ins;

    // all of these nodes implicitly do an indirection on op1
    // so create a temporary node to feed into the pattern matching
    GenTreeIndir i = indirForm(data->TypeGet(), addr);
    genConsumeReg(addr);

    // The register allocator should have extended the lifetime of the address
    // so that it is not used as the target.
    noway_assert(addrReg != targetReg);

    // If data is a lclVar that's not a last use, we'd better have allocated a register
    // for the result (except in the case of GT_LOCKADD which does not produce a register result).
    assert(targetReg != REG_NA || treeNode->OperGet() == GT_LOCKADD || !genIsRegCandidateLocal(data) ||
           (data->gtFlags & GTF_VAR_DEATH) != 0);

    genConsumeIfReg(data);
    if (targetReg != REG_NA && dataReg != REG_NA && dataReg != targetReg)
    {
        inst_RV_RV(ins_Copy(data->TypeGet()), targetReg, dataReg);
        data->gtRegNum = targetReg;

        // TODO-XArch-Cleanup: Consider whether it is worth it, for debugging purposes, to restore the
        // original gtRegNum on data, after calling emitInsBinary below.
    }
    switch (treeNode->OperGet())
    {
        case GT_LOCKADD:
            instGen(INS_lock);
            ins = INS_add;
            break;
        case GT_XCHG:
            // lock is implied by xchg
            ins = INS_xchg;
            break;
        case GT_XADD:
            instGen(INS_lock);
            ins = INS_xadd;
            break;
        default:
            unreached();
    }
    getEmitter()->emitInsBinary(ins, emitTypeSize(data), &i, data);

    if (treeNode->gtRegNum != REG_NA)
    {
        genProduceReg(treeNode);
    }
}

// generate code for BoundsCheck nodes
void CodeGen::genRangeCheck(GenTreePtr oper)
{
#ifdef FEATURE_SIMD
    noway_assert(oper->OperGet() == GT_ARR_BOUNDS_CHECK || oper->OperGet() == GT_SIMD_CHK);
#else  // !FEATURE_SIMD
    noway_assert(oper->OperGet() == GT_ARR_BOUNDS_CHECK);
#endif // !FEATURE_SIMD

    GenTreeBoundsChk* bndsChk = oper->AsBoundsChk();

    GenTreePtr arrLen    = bndsChk->gtArrLen;
    GenTreePtr arrIndex  = bndsChk->gtIndex;
    GenTreePtr arrRef    = nullptr;
    int        lenOffset = 0;

    GenTree *    src1, *src2;
    emitJumpKind jmpKind;

    genConsumeRegs(arrLen);
    genConsumeRegs(arrIndex);

    if (arrIndex->isContainedIntOrIImmed())
    {
        // arrIndex is a contained constant.  In this case
        // we will generate one of the following
        //      cmp [mem], immed    (if arrLen is a memory op)
        //      cmp reg, immed      (if arrLen is in a reg)
        //
        // That is arrLen cannot be a contained immed.
        assert(!arrLen->isContainedIntOrIImmed());

        src1    = arrLen;
        src2    = arrIndex;
        jmpKind = EJ_jbe;
    }
    else
    {
        // arrIndex could either be a contained memory op or a reg
        // In this case we will generate one of the following
        //      cmp  [mem], immed   (if arrLen is a constant)
        //      cmp  [mem], reg     (if arrLen is in a reg)
        //      cmp  reg, immed     (if arrIndex is in a reg)
        //      cmp  reg1, reg2     (if arraIndex is in reg1)
        //      cmp  reg, [mem]     (if arrLen is a memory op)
        //
        // That is only one of arrIndex or arrLen can be a memory op.
        assert(!arrIndex->isContainedMemoryOp() || !arrLen->isContainedMemoryOp());

        src1    = arrIndex;
        src2    = arrLen;
        jmpKind = EJ_jae;
    }

    var_types bndsChkType = src2->TypeGet();
#if DEBUG
    // Bounds checks can only be 32 or 64 bit sized comparisons.
    assert(bndsChkType == TYP_INT || bndsChkType == TYP_LONG);

    // The type of the bounds check should always wide enough to compare against the index.
    assert(emitTypeSize(bndsChkType) >= emitTypeSize(src1->TypeGet()));
#endif // DEBUG

    getEmitter()->emitInsBinary(INS_cmp, emitTypeSize(bndsChkType), src1, src2);
    genJumpToThrowHlpBlk(jmpKind, bndsChk->gtThrowKind, bndsChk->gtIndRngFailBB);
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genOffsetOfMDArrayLowerBound: Returns the offset from the Array object to the
//   lower bound for the given dimension.
//
// Arguments:
//    elemType  - the element type of the array
//    rank      - the rank of the array
//    dimension - the dimension for which the lower bound offset will be returned.
//
// Return Value:
//    The offset.

unsigned CodeGen::genOffsetOfMDArrayLowerBound(var_types elemType, unsigned rank, unsigned dimension)
{
    // Note that the lower bound and length fields of the Array object are always TYP_INT, even on 64-bit targets.
    return compiler->eeGetArrayDataOffset(elemType) + genTypeSize(TYP_INT) * (dimension + rank);
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genOffsetOfMDArrayLength: Returns the offset from the Array object to the
//   size for the given dimension.
//
// Arguments:
//    elemType  - the element type of the array
//    rank      - the rank of the array
//    dimension - the dimension for which the lower bound offset will be returned.
//
// Return Value:
//    The offset.

unsigned CodeGen::genOffsetOfMDArrayDimensionSize(var_types elemType, unsigned rank, unsigned dimension)
{
    // Note that the lower bound and length fields of the Array object are always TYP_INT, even on 64-bit targets.
    return compiler->eeGetArrayDataOffset(elemType) + genTypeSize(TYP_INT) * dimension;
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genCodeForArrIndex: Generates code to bounds check the index for one dimension of an array reference,
//                     producing the effective index by subtracting the lower bound.
//
// Arguments:
//    arrIndex - the node for which we're generating code
//
// Return Value:
//    None.
//

void CodeGen::genCodeForArrIndex(GenTreeArrIndex* arrIndex)
{
    GenTreePtr arrObj    = arrIndex->ArrObj();
    GenTreePtr indexNode = arrIndex->IndexExpr();

    regNumber arrReg   = genConsumeReg(arrObj);
    regNumber indexReg = genConsumeReg(indexNode);
    regNumber tgtReg   = arrIndex->gtRegNum;

    unsigned  dim      = arrIndex->gtCurrDim;
    unsigned  rank     = arrIndex->gtArrRank;
    var_types elemType = arrIndex->gtArrElemType;

    noway_assert(tgtReg != REG_NA);

    // Subtract the lower bound for this dimension.
    // TODO-XArch-CQ: make this contained if it's an immediate that fits.
    if (tgtReg != indexReg)
    {
        inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, tgtReg, indexReg, indexNode->TypeGet());
    }
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_AR(INS_sub, emitActualTypeSize(TYP_INT), tgtReg, arrReg,
                               genOffsetOfMDArrayLowerBound(elemType, rank, dim));
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_AR(INS_cmp, emitActualTypeSize(TYP_INT), tgtReg, arrReg,
                               genOffsetOfMDArrayDimensionSize(elemType, rank, dim));
    genJumpToThrowHlpBlk(EJ_jae, SCK_RNGCHK_FAIL);

    genProduceReg(arrIndex);
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genCodeForArrOffset: Generates code to compute the flattened array offset for
//    one dimension of an array reference:
//        result = (prevDimOffset * dimSize) + effectiveIndex
//    where dimSize is obtained from the arrObj operand
//
// Arguments:
//    arrOffset - the node for which we're generating code
//
// Return Value:
//    None.
//
// Notes:
//    dimSize and effectiveIndex are always non-negative, the former by design,
//    and the latter because it has been normalized to be zero-based.

void CodeGen::genCodeForArrOffset(GenTreeArrOffs* arrOffset)
{
    GenTreePtr offsetNode = arrOffset->gtOffset;
    GenTreePtr indexNode  = arrOffset->gtIndex;
    GenTreePtr arrObj     = arrOffset->gtArrObj;

    regNumber tgtReg = arrOffset->gtRegNum;

    noway_assert(tgtReg != REG_NA);

    unsigned  dim      = arrOffset->gtCurrDim;
    unsigned  rank     = arrOffset->gtArrRank;
    var_types elemType = arrOffset->gtArrElemType;

    // We will use a temp register for the offset*scale+effectiveIndex computation.
    regMaskTP tmpRegMask = arrOffset->gtRsvdRegs;
    regNumber tmpReg     = genRegNumFromMask(tmpRegMask);

    // First, consume the operands in the correct order.
    regNumber offsetReg = REG_NA;
    if (!offsetNode->IsIntegralConst(0))
    {
        offsetReg = genConsumeReg(offsetNode);
    }
    else
    {
        assert(offsetNode->isContained());
    }
    regNumber indexReg = genConsumeReg(indexNode);
    // Although arrReg may not be used in the constant-index case, if we have generated
    // the value into a register, we must consume it, otherwise we will fail to end the
    // live range of the gc ptr.
    // TODO-CQ: Currently arrObj will always have a register allocated to it.
    // We could avoid allocating a register for it, which would be of value if the arrObj
    // is an on-stack lclVar.
    regNumber arrReg = REG_NA;
    if (arrObj->gtHasReg())
    {
        arrReg = genConsumeReg(arrObj);
    }

    if (!offsetNode->IsIntegralConst(0))
    {
        // Evaluate tgtReg = offsetReg*dim_size + indexReg.
        // tmpReg is used to load dim_size and the result of the multiplication.
        // Note that dim_size will never be negative.

        getEmitter()->emitIns_R_AR(INS_mov, emitActualTypeSize(TYP_INT), tmpReg, arrReg,
                                   genOffsetOfMDArrayDimensionSize(elemType, rank, dim));
        inst_RV_RV(INS_imul, tmpReg, offsetReg);

        if (tmpReg == tgtReg)
        {
            inst_RV_RV(INS_add, tmpReg, indexReg);
        }
        else
        {
            if (indexReg != tgtReg)
            {
                inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, tgtReg, indexReg, TYP_I_IMPL);
            }
            inst_RV_RV(INS_add, tgtReg, tmpReg);
        }
    }
    else
    {
        if (indexReg != tgtReg)
        {
            inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, tgtReg, indexReg, TYP_INT);
        }
    }
    genProduceReg(arrOffset);
}

// make a temporary indir we can feed to pattern matching routines
// in cases where we don't want to instantiate all the indirs that happen
//
GenTreeIndir CodeGen::indirForm(var_types type, GenTree* base)
{
    GenTreeIndir i(GT_IND, type, base, nullptr);
    i.gtRegNum = REG_NA;
    // has to be nonnull (because contained nodes can't be the last in block)
    // but don't want it to be a valid pointer
    i.gtNext = (GenTree*)(-1);
    return i;
}

// make a temporary int we can feed to pattern matching routines
// in cases where we don't want to instantiate
//
GenTreeIntCon CodeGen::intForm(var_types type, ssize_t value)
{
    GenTreeIntCon i(type, value);
    i.gtRegNum = REG_NA;
    // has to be nonnull (because contained nodes can't be the last in block)
    // but don't want it to be a valid pointer
    i.gtNext = (GenTree*)(-1);
    return i;
}

instruction CodeGen::genGetInsForOper(genTreeOps oper, var_types type)
{
    instruction ins;

    // Operations on SIMD vectors shouldn't come this path
    assert(!varTypeIsSIMD(type));
    if (varTypeIsFloating(type))
    {
        return ins_MathOp(oper, type);
    }

    switch (oper)
    {
        case GT_ADD:
            ins = INS_add;
            break;
        case GT_AND:
            ins = INS_and;
            break;
        case GT_LSH:
            ins = INS_shl;
            break;
        case GT_MUL:
            ins = INS_imul;
            break;
        case GT_NEG:
            ins = INS_neg;
            break;
        case GT_NOT:
            ins = INS_not;
            break;
        case GT_OR:
            ins = INS_or;
            break;
        case GT_ROL:
            ins = INS_rol;
            break;
        case GT_ROR:
            ins = INS_ror;
            break;
        case GT_RSH:
            ins = INS_sar;
            break;
        case GT_RSZ:
            ins = INS_shr;
            break;
        case GT_SUB:
            ins = INS_sub;
            break;
        case GT_XOR:
            ins = INS_xor;
            break;
#if !defined(_TARGET_64BIT_)
        case GT_ADD_LO:
            ins = INS_add;
            break;
        case GT_ADD_HI:
            ins = INS_adc;
            break;
        case GT_SUB_LO:
            ins = INS_sub;
            break;
        case GT_SUB_HI:
            ins = INS_sbb;
            break;
#endif // !defined(_TARGET_64BIT_)
        default:
            unreached();
            break;
    }
    return ins;
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genCodeForShift: Generates the code sequence for a GenTree node that
// represents a bit shift or rotate operation (<<, >>, >>>, rol, ror).
//
// Arguments:
//    tree - the bit shift node (that specifies the type of bit shift to perform).
//
// Assumptions:
//    a) All GenTrees are register allocated.
//    b) The shift-by-amount in tree->gtOp.gtOp2 is either a contained constant or
//       it's a register-allocated expression. If it is in a register that is
//       not RCX, it will be moved to RCX (so RCX better not be in use!).
//
void CodeGen::genCodeForShift(GenTreePtr tree)
{
    // Only the non-RMW case here.
    assert(tree->OperIsShiftOrRotate());
    assert(!tree->gtOp.gtOp1->isContained());
    assert(tree->gtRegNum != REG_NA);

    genConsumeOperands(tree->AsOp());

    var_types   targetType = tree->TypeGet();
    instruction ins        = genGetInsForOper(tree->OperGet(), targetType);

    GenTreePtr operand    = tree->gtGetOp1();
    regNumber  operandReg = operand->gtRegNum;

    GenTreePtr shiftBy = tree->gtGetOp2();
    if (shiftBy->isContainedIntOrIImmed())
    {
        // First, move the operand to the destination register and
        // later on perform the shift in-place.
        // (LSRA will try to avoid this situation through preferencing.)
        if (tree->gtRegNum != operandReg)
        {
            inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, tree->gtRegNum, operandReg, targetType);
        }

        int shiftByValue = (int)shiftBy->AsIntConCommon()->IconValue();
        inst_RV_SH(ins, emitTypeSize(tree), tree->gtRegNum, shiftByValue);
    }
    else
    {
        // We must have the number of bits to shift stored in ECX, since we constrained this node to
        // sit in ECX. In case this didn't happen, LSRA expects the code generator to move it since it's a single
        // register destination requirement.
        regNumber shiftReg = shiftBy->gtRegNum;
        if (shiftReg != REG_RCX)
        {
            // Issue the mov to RCX:
            inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, REG_RCX, shiftReg, shiftBy->TypeGet());
        }

        // The operand to be shifted must not be in ECX
        noway_assert(operandReg != REG_RCX);

        if (tree->gtRegNum != operandReg)
        {
            inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, tree->gtRegNum, operandReg, targetType);
        }
        inst_RV_CL(ins, tree->gtRegNum, targetType);
    }

    genProduceReg(tree);
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genCodeForShiftRMW: Generates the code sequence for a GT_STOREIND GenTree node that
// represents a RMW bit shift or rotate operation (<<, >>, >>>, rol, ror), for example:
//      GT_STOREIND( AddressTree, GT_SHL( Ind ( AddressTree ), Operand ) )
//
// Arguments:
//    storeIndNode: the GT_STOREIND node.
//
void CodeGen::genCodeForShiftRMW(GenTreeStoreInd* storeInd)
{
    GenTree* data = storeInd->Data();
    GenTree* addr = storeInd->Addr();

    assert(data->OperIsShiftOrRotate());

    // This function only handles the RMW case.
    assert(data->gtOp.gtOp1->isContained());
    assert(data->gtOp.gtOp1->isIndir());
    assert(Lowering::IndirsAreEquivalent(data->gtOp.gtOp1, storeInd));
    assert(data->gtRegNum == REG_NA);

    var_types   targetType = data->TypeGet();
    genTreeOps  oper       = data->OperGet();
    instruction ins        = genGetInsForOper(oper, targetType);
    emitAttr    attr       = EA_ATTR(genTypeSize(targetType));

    GenTree* shiftBy = data->gtOp.gtOp2;
    if (shiftBy->isContainedIntOrIImmed())
    {
        int shiftByValue = (int)shiftBy->AsIntConCommon()->IconValue();
        ins              = genMapShiftInsToShiftByConstantIns(ins, shiftByValue);
        if (shiftByValue == 1)
        {
            // There is no source in this case, as the shift by count is embedded in the instruction opcode itself.
            getEmitter()->emitInsRMW(ins, attr, storeInd);
        }
        else
        {
            getEmitter()->emitInsRMW(ins, attr, storeInd, shiftBy);
        }
    }
    else
    {
        // We must have the number of bits to shift stored in ECX, since we constrained this node to
        // sit in ECX. In case this didn't happen, LSRA expects the code generator to move it since it's a single
        // register destination requirement.
        regNumber shiftReg = shiftBy->gtRegNum;
        if (shiftReg != REG_RCX)
        {
            // Issue the mov to RCX:
            inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, REG_RCX, shiftReg, shiftBy->TypeGet());
        }

        // The shiftBy operand is implicit, so call the unary version of emitInsRMW.
        getEmitter()->emitInsRMW(ins, attr, storeInd);
    }
}

void CodeGen::genUnspillRegIfNeeded(GenTree* tree)
{
    regNumber dstReg      = tree->gtRegNum;
    GenTree*  unspillTree = tree;

    if (tree->gtOper == GT_RELOAD)
    {
        unspillTree = tree->gtOp.gtOp1;
    }

    if ((unspillTree->gtFlags & GTF_SPILLED) != 0)
    {
        if (genIsRegCandidateLocal(unspillTree))
        {
            // Reset spilled flag, since we are going to load a local variable from its home location.
            unspillTree->gtFlags &= ~GTF_SPILLED;

            GenTreeLclVarCommon* lcl    = unspillTree->AsLclVarCommon();
            LclVarDsc*           varDsc = &compiler->lvaTable[lcl->gtLclNum];

            // Load local variable from its home location.
            // In most cases the tree type will indicate the correct type to use for the load.
            // However, if it is NOT a normalizeOnLoad lclVar (i.e. NOT a small int that always gets
            // widened when loaded into a register), and its size is not the same as genActualType of
            // the type of the lclVar, then we need to change the type of the tree node when loading.
            // This situation happens due to "optimizations" that avoid a cast and
            // simply retype the node when using long type lclVar as an int.
            // While loading the int in that case would work for this use of the lclVar, if it is
            // later used as a long, we will have incorrectly truncated the long.
            // In the normalizeOnLoad case ins_Load will return an appropriate sign- or zero-
            // extending load.

            var_types treeType = unspillTree->TypeGet();
            if (treeType != genActualType(varDsc->lvType) && !varTypeIsGC(treeType) && !varDsc->lvNormalizeOnLoad())
            {
                assert(!varTypeIsGC(varDsc));
                var_types spillType = genActualType(varDsc->lvType);
                unspillTree->gtType = spillType;
                inst_RV_TT(ins_Load(spillType, compiler->isSIMDTypeLocalAligned(lcl->gtLclNum)), dstReg, unspillTree);
                unspillTree->gtType = treeType;
            }
            else
            {
                inst_RV_TT(ins_Load(treeType, compiler->isSIMDTypeLocalAligned(lcl->gtLclNum)), dstReg, unspillTree);
            }

            unspillTree->SetInReg();

            // TODO-Review: We would like to call:
            //      genUpdateRegLife(varDsc, /*isBorn*/ true, /*isDying*/ false DEBUGARG(tree));
            // instead of the following code, but this ends up hitting this assert:
            //      assert((regSet.rsMaskVars & regMask) == 0);
            // due to issues with LSRA resolution moves.
            // So, just force it for now. This probably indicates a condition that creates a GC hole!
            //
            // Extra note: I think we really want to call something like gcInfo.gcUpdateForRegVarMove,
            // because the variable is not really going live or dead, but that method is somewhat poorly
            // factored because it, in turn, updates rsMaskVars which is part of RegSet not GCInfo.
            // TODO-Cleanup: This code exists in other CodeGen*.cpp files, and should be moved to CodeGenCommon.cpp.

            // Don't update the variable's location if we are just re-spilling it again.

            if ((unspillTree->gtFlags & GTF_SPILL) == 0)
            {
                genUpdateVarReg(varDsc, tree);
#ifdef DEBUG
                if (VarSetOps::IsMember(compiler, gcInfo.gcVarPtrSetCur, varDsc->lvVarIndex))
                {
                    JITDUMP("\t\t\t\t\t\t\tRemoving V%02u from gcVarPtrSetCur\n", lcl->gtLclNum);
                }
#endif // DEBUG
                VarSetOps::RemoveElemD(compiler, gcInfo.gcVarPtrSetCur, varDsc->lvVarIndex);

#ifdef DEBUG
                if (compiler->verbose)
                {
                    printf("\t\t\t\t\t\t\tV%02u in reg ", lcl->gtLclNum);
                    varDsc->PrintVarReg();
                    printf(" is becoming live  ");
                    compiler->printTreeID(unspillTree);
                    printf("\n");
                }
#endif // DEBUG

                regSet.AddMaskVars(genGetRegMask(varDsc));
            }

            gcInfo.gcMarkRegPtrVal(dstReg, unspillTree->TypeGet());
        }
        else if (unspillTree->IsMultiRegCall())
        {
            GenTreeCall*         call        = unspillTree->AsCall();
            ReturnTypeDesc*      retTypeDesc = call->GetReturnTypeDesc();
            unsigned             regCount    = retTypeDesc->GetReturnRegCount();
            GenTreeCopyOrReload* reloadTree  = nullptr;
            if (tree->OperGet() == GT_RELOAD)
            {
                reloadTree = tree->AsCopyOrReload();
            }

            // In case of multi-reg call node, GTF_SPILLED flag on it indicates that
            // one or more of its result regs are spilled.  Call node needs to be
            // queried to know which specific result regs to be unspilled.
            for (unsigned i = 0; i < regCount; ++i)
            {
                unsigned flags = call->GetRegSpillFlagByIdx(i);
                if ((flags & GTF_SPILLED) != 0)
                {
                    var_types dstType        = retTypeDesc->GetReturnRegType(i);
                    regNumber unspillTreeReg = call->GetRegNumByIdx(i);

                    if (reloadTree != nullptr)
                    {
                        dstReg = reloadTree->GetRegNumByIdx(i);
                        if (dstReg == REG_NA)
                        {
                            dstReg = unspillTreeReg;
                        }
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        dstReg = unspillTreeReg;
                    }

                    TempDsc* t = regSet.rsUnspillInPlace(call, unspillTreeReg, i);
                    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_S(ins_Load(dstType), emitActualTypeSize(dstType), dstReg, t->tdTempNum(),
                                              0);
                    compiler->tmpRlsTemp(t);
                    gcInfo.gcMarkRegPtrVal(dstReg, dstType);
                }
            }

            unspillTree->gtFlags &= ~GTF_SPILLED;
            unspillTree->SetInReg();
        }
        else
        {
            TempDsc* t = regSet.rsUnspillInPlace(unspillTree, unspillTree->gtRegNum);
            getEmitter()->emitIns_R_S(ins_Load(unspillTree->gtType), emitActualTypeSize(unspillTree->TypeGet()), dstReg,
                                      t->tdTempNum(), 0);
            compiler->tmpRlsTemp(t);

            unspillTree->gtFlags &= ~GTF_SPILLED;
            unspillTree->SetInReg();
            gcInfo.gcMarkRegPtrVal(dstReg, unspillTree->TypeGet());
        }
    }
}

// Do Liveness update for a subnodes that is being consumed by codegen
// including the logic for reload in case is needed and also takes care
// of locating the value on the desired register.
void CodeGen::genConsumeRegAndCopy(GenTree* tree, regNumber needReg)
{
    if (needReg == REG_NA)
    {
        return;
    }
    regNumber treeReg = genConsumeReg(tree);
    if (treeReg != needReg)
    {
        inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, needReg, treeReg, tree->TypeGet());
    }
}

void CodeGen::genRegCopy(GenTree* treeNode)
{
    assert(treeNode->OperGet() == GT_COPY);
    GenTree* op1 = treeNode->gtOp.gtOp1;

    if (op1->IsMultiRegCall())
    {
        genConsumeReg(op1);

        GenTreeCopyOrReload* copyTree    = treeNode->AsCopyOrReload();
        GenTreeCall*         call        = op1->AsCall();
        ReturnTypeDesc*      retTypeDesc = call->GetReturnTypeDesc();
        unsigned             regCount    = retTypeDesc->GetReturnRegCount();

        for (unsigned i = 0; i < regCount; ++i)
        {
            var_types type    = retTypeDesc->GetReturnRegType(i);
            regNumber fromReg = call->GetRegNumByIdx(i);
            regNumber toReg   = copyTree->GetRegNumByIdx(i);

            // A Multi-reg GT_COPY node will have valid reg only for those
            // positions that corresponding result reg of call node needs
            // to be copied.
            if (toReg != REG_NA)
            {
                assert(toReg != fromReg);
                inst_RV_RV(ins_Copy(type), toReg, fromReg, type);
            }
        }
    }
    else
    {
        var_types targetType = treeNode->TypeGet();
        regNumber targetReg  = treeNode->gtRegNum;
        assert(targetReg != REG_NA);

        // Check whether this node and the node from which we're copying the value have
        // different register types. This can happen if (currently iff) we have a SIMD
        // vector type that fits in an integer register, in which case it is passed as
        // an argument, or returned from a call, in an integer register and must be
        // copied if it's in an xmm register.

        bool srcFltReg = (varTypeIsFloating(op1) || varTypeIsSIMD(op1));
        bool tgtFltReg = (varTypeIsFloating(treeNode) || varTypeIsSIMD(treeNode));
        if (srcFltReg != tgtFltReg)
        {
            instruction ins;
            regNumber   fpReg;
            regNumber   intReg;
            if (tgtFltReg)
            {
                ins    = ins_CopyIntToFloat(op1->TypeGet(), treeNode->TypeGet());
                fpReg  = targetReg;
                intReg = op1->gtRegNum;
            }
            else
            {
                ins    = ins_CopyFloatToInt(op1->TypeGet(), treeNode->TypeGet());
                intReg = targetReg;
                fpReg  = op1->gtRegNum;
            }
            inst_RV_RV(ins, fpReg, intReg, targetType);
        }
        else
        {
            inst_RV_RV(ins_Copy(targetType), targetReg, genConsumeReg(op1), targetType);
        }

        if (op1->IsLocal())
        {
            // The lclVar will never be a def.
            // If it is a last use, the lclVar will be killed by genConsumeReg(), as usual, and genProduceReg will
            // appropriately set the gcInfo for the copied value.
            // If not, there are two cases we need to handle:
            // - If this is a TEMPORARY copy (indicated by the GTF_VAR_DEATH flag) the variable
            //   will remain live in its original register.
            //   genProduceReg() will appropriately set the gcInfo for the copied value,
            //   and genConsumeReg will reset it.
            // - Otherwise, we need to update register info for the lclVar.

            GenTreeLclVarCommon* lcl = op1->AsLclVarCommon();
            assert((lcl->gtFlags & GTF_VAR_DEF) == 0);

            if ((lcl->gtFlags & GTF_VAR_DEATH) == 0 && (treeNode->gtFlags & GTF_VAR_DEATH) == 0)
            {
                LclVarDsc* varDsc = &compiler->lvaTable[lcl->gtLclNum];

                // If we didn't just spill it (in genConsumeReg, above), then update the register info
                if (varDsc->lvRegNum != REG_STK)
                {
                    // The old location is dying
                    genUpdateRegLife(varDsc, /*isBorn*/ false, /*isDying*/ true DEBUGARG(op1));

                    gcInfo.gcMarkRegSetNpt(genRegMask(op1->gtRegNum));

                    genUpdateVarReg(varDsc, treeNode);

                    // The new location is going live
                    genUpdateRegLife(varDsc, /*isBorn*/ true, /*isDying*/ false DEBUGARG(treeNode));
                }
            }
        }
    }

    genProduceReg(treeNode);
}

// Check that registers are consumed in the right order for the current node being generated.
#ifdef DEBUG
void CodeGen::genCheckConsumeNode(GenTree* treeNode)
{
    // GT_PUTARG_REG is consumed out of order.
    if (treeNode->gtSeqNum != 0 && treeNode->OperGet() != GT_PUTARG_REG)
    {
        if (lastConsumedNode != nullptr)
        {
            if (treeNode == lastConsumedNode)
            {
                if (verbose)
                {
                    printf("Node was consumed twice:\n    ");
                    compiler->gtDispTree(treeNode, nullptr, nullptr, true);
                }
            }
            else
            {
                if (verbose && (lastConsumedNode->gtSeqNum > treeNode->gtSeqNum))
                {
                    printf("Nodes were consumed out-of-order:\n");
                    compiler->gtDispTree(lastConsumedNode, nullptr, nullptr, true);
                    compiler->gtDispTree(treeNode, nullptr, nullptr, true);
                }
                // assert(lastConsumedNode->gtSeqNum < treeNode->gtSeqNum);
            }
        }
        lastConsumedNode = treeNode;
    }
}
#endif // DEBUG

//--------------------------------------------------------------------
// genConsumeReg: Do liveness update for a subnode that is being
// consumed by codegen.
//
// Arguments:
//    tree - GenTree node
//
// Return Value:
//    Returns the reg number of tree.
//    In case of multi-reg call node returns the first reg number
//    of the multi-reg return.
regNumber CodeGen::genConsumeReg(GenTree* tree)
{
    if (tree->OperGet() == GT_COPY)
    {
        genRegCopy(tree);
    }

    // Handle the case where we have a lclVar that needs to be copied before use (i.e. because it
    // interferes with one of the other sources (or the target, if it's a "delayed use" register)).
    // TODO-Cleanup: This is a special copyReg case in LSRA - consider eliminating these and
    // always using GT_COPY to make the lclVar location explicit.
    // Note that we have to do this before calling genUpdateLife because otherwise if we spill it
    // the lvRegNum will be set to REG_STK and we will lose track of what register currently holds
    // the lclVar (normally when a lclVar is spilled it is then used from its former register
    // location, which matches the gtRegNum on the node).
    // (Note that it doesn't matter if we call this before or after genUnspillRegIfNeeded
    // because if it's on the stack it will always get reloaded into tree->gtRegNum).
    if (genIsRegCandidateLocal(tree))
    {
        GenTreeLclVarCommon* lcl    = tree->AsLclVarCommon();
        LclVarDsc*           varDsc = &compiler->lvaTable[lcl->GetLclNum()];
        if (varDsc->lvRegNum != REG_STK && varDsc->lvRegNum != tree->gtRegNum)
        {
            inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, tree->gtRegNum, varDsc->lvRegNum);
        }
    }

    genUnspillRegIfNeeded(tree);

    // genUpdateLife() will also spill local var if marked as GTF_SPILL by calling CodeGen::genSpillVar
    genUpdateLife(tree);

    assert(tree->gtHasReg());

    // there are three cases where consuming a reg means clearing the bit in the live mask
    // 1. it was not produced by a local
    // 2. it was produced by a local that is going dead
    // 3. it was produced by a local that does not live in that reg (like one allocated on the stack)

    if (genIsRegCandidateLocal(tree))
    {
        GenTreeLclVarCommon* lcl    = tree->AsLclVarCommon();
        LclVarDsc*           varDsc = &compiler->lvaTable[lcl->GetLclNum()];
        assert(varDsc->lvLRACandidate);

        if ((tree->gtFlags & GTF_VAR_DEATH) != 0)
        {
            gcInfo.gcMarkRegSetNpt(genRegMask(varDsc->lvRegNum));
        }
        else if (varDsc->lvRegNum == REG_STK)
        {
            // We have loaded this into a register only temporarily
            gcInfo.gcMarkRegSetNpt(genRegMask(tree->gtRegNum));
        }
    }
    else
    {
        gcInfo.gcMarkRegSetNpt(tree->gtGetRegMask());
    }

    genCheckConsumeNode(tree);
    return tree->gtRegNum;
}

// Do liveness update for an address tree: one of GT_LEA, GT_LCL_VAR, or GT_CNS_INT (for call indirect).
void CodeGen::genConsumeAddress(GenTree* addr)
{
    if (!addr->isContained())
    {
        genConsumeReg(addr);
    }
    else if (addr->OperGet() == GT_LEA)
    {
        genConsumeAddrMode(addr->AsAddrMode());
    }
}

// do liveness update for a subnode that is being consumed by codegen
void CodeGen::genConsumeAddrMode(GenTreeAddrMode* addr)
{
    genConsumeOperands(addr);
}

void CodeGen::genConsumeRegs(GenTree* tree)
{
#if !defined(_TARGET_64BIT_)
    if (tree->OperGet() == GT_LONG)
    {
        genConsumeRegs(tree->gtGetOp1());
        genConsumeRegs(tree->gtGetOp2());
        return;
    }
#endif // !defined(_TARGET_64BIT_)

    if (tree->isContained())
    {
        if (tree->isContainedSpillTemp())
        {
            // spill temps are un-tracked and hence no need to update life
        }
        else if (tree->isIndir())
        {
            genConsumeAddress(tree->AsIndir()->Addr());
        }
        else if (tree->OperGet() == GT_AND)
        {
            // This is the special contained GT_AND that we created in Lowering::LowerCmp()
            // Now we need to consume the operands of the GT_AND node.
            genConsumeOperands(tree->AsOp());
        }
        else if (tree->OperGet() == GT_LCL_VAR)
        {
            // A contained lcl var must be living on stack and marked as reg optional.
            unsigned   varNum = tree->AsLclVarCommon()->GetLclNum();
            LclVarDsc* varDsc = compiler->lvaTable + varNum;

            noway_assert(varDsc->lvRegNum == REG_STK);
            noway_assert(tree->IsRegOptional());

            // Update the life of reg optional lcl var.
            genUpdateLife(tree);
        }
        else
        {
            assert(tree->OperIsLeaf());
        }
    }
    else
    {
        genConsumeReg(tree);
    }
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genConsumeOperands: Do liveness update for the operands of a unary or binary tree
//
// Arguments:
//    tree - the GenTreeOp whose operands will have their liveness updated.
//
// Return Value:
//    None.
//
// Notes:
//    Note that this logic is localized here because we must do the liveness update in
//    the correct execution order.  This is important because we may have two operands
//    that involve the same lclVar, and if one is marked "lastUse" we must handle it
//    after the first.

void CodeGen::genConsumeOperands(GenTreeOp* tree)
{
    GenTree* firstOp  = tree->gtOp1;
    GenTree* secondOp = tree->gtOp2;
    if ((tree->gtFlags & GTF_REVERSE_OPS) != 0)
    {
        assert(secondOp != nullptr);
        firstOp  = secondOp;
        secondOp = tree->gtOp1;
    }
    if (firstOp != nullptr)
    {
        genConsumeRegs(firstOp);
    }
    if (secondOp != nullptr)
    {
        genConsumeRegs(secondOp);
    }
}

#ifdef FEATURE_UNIX_AMD64_STRUCT_PASSING
//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genConsumePutStructArgStk: Do liveness update for the operands of a PutArgStk node.
//                      Also loads in the right register the addresses of the
//                      src/dst for rep mov operation.
//
// Arguments:
//    putArgNode - the PUTARG_STK tree.
//    dstReg     - the dstReg for the rep move operation.
//    srcReg     - the srcReg for the rep move operation.
//    sizeReg    - the sizeReg for the rep move operation.
//    baseVarNum - the varnum for the local used for placing the "by-value" args on the stack.
//
// Return Value:
//    None.
//
// Note: sizeReg can be REG_NA when this function is used to consume the dstReg and srcReg
//           for copying on the stack a struct with references.
//       The source address/offset is determined from the address on the GT_OBJ node, while
//       the destination address is the address contained in 'baseVarNum' plus the offset
//       provided in the 'putArgNode'.

void CodeGen::genConsumePutStructArgStk(
    GenTreePutArgStk* putArgNode, regNumber dstReg, regNumber srcReg, regNumber sizeReg, unsigned baseVarNum)
{
    assert(varTypeIsStruct(putArgNode));
    assert(baseVarNum != BAD_VAR_NUM);

    // The putArgNode children are always contained. We should not consume any registers.
    assert(putArgNode->gtGetOp1()->isContained());

    GenTree* dstAddr = putArgNode;

    // Get the source address.
    GenTree* src = putArgNode->gtGetOp1();
    assert((src->gtOper == GT_OBJ) || ((src->gtOper == GT_IND && varTypeIsSIMD(src))));
    GenTree* srcAddr = src->gtGetOp1();

    size_t size = putArgNode->getArgSize();

    assert(dstReg != REG_NA);
    assert(srcReg != REG_NA);

    // Consume the registers only if they are not contained or set to REG_NA.
    if (srcAddr->gtRegNum != REG_NA)
    {
        genConsumeReg(srcAddr);
    }

    // If the op1 is already in the dstReg - nothing to do.
    // Otherwise load the op1 (GT_ADDR) into the dstReg to copy the struct on the stack by value.
    if (dstAddr->gtRegNum != dstReg)
    {
        // Generate LEA instruction to load the stack of the outgoing var + SlotNum offset (or the incoming arg area
        // for tail calls) in RDI.
        // Destination is always local (on the stack) - use EA_PTRSIZE.
        getEmitter()->emitIns_R_S(INS_lea, EA_PTRSIZE, dstReg, baseVarNum, putArgNode->getArgOffset());
    }

    if (srcAddr->gtRegNum != srcReg)
    {
        if (srcAddr->OperIsLocalAddr())
        {
            // The OperLocalAddr is always contained.
            assert(srcAddr->isContained());
            GenTreeLclVarCommon* lclNode = srcAddr->AsLclVarCommon();

            // Generate LEA instruction to load the LclVar address in RSI.
            // Source is known to be on the stack. Use EA_PTRSIZE.
            unsigned int offset = 0;
            if (srcAddr->OperGet() == GT_LCL_FLD_ADDR)
            {
                offset = srcAddr->AsLclFld()->gtLclOffs;
            }
            getEmitter()->emitIns_R_S(INS_lea, EA_PTRSIZE, srcReg, lclNode->gtLclNum, offset);
        }
        else
        {
            assert(srcAddr->gtRegNum != REG_NA);
            // Source is not known to be on the stack. Use EA_BYREF.
            getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R(INS_mov, EA_BYREF, srcReg, srcAddr->gtRegNum);
        }
    }

    if (sizeReg != REG_NA)
    {
        inst_RV_IV(INS_mov, sizeReg, size, EA_8BYTE);
    }
}
#endif // FEATURE_UNIX_AMD64_STRUCT_PASSING

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genConsumeBlockSize: Ensure that the block size is in the given register
//
// Arguments:
//    blkNode - The block node
//    sizeReg - The register into which the block's size should go
//

void CodeGen::genConsumeBlockSize(GenTreeBlk* blkNode, regNumber sizeReg)
{
    if (sizeReg != REG_NA)
    {
        unsigned blockSize = blkNode->Size();
        if (blockSize != 0)
        {
            assert(blkNode->gtRsvdRegs == genRegMask(sizeReg));
            genSetRegToIcon(sizeReg, blockSize);
        }
        else
        {
            noway_assert(blkNode->gtOper == GT_STORE_DYN_BLK);
            genConsumeReg(blkNode->AsDynBlk()->gtDynamicSize);
        }
    }
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genConsumeBlockDst: Ensure that the block destination address is in its
//                     allocated register.
// Arguments:
//    blkNode - The block node
//

void CodeGen::genConsumeBlockDst(GenTreeBlk* blkNode)
{
    GenTree* dstAddr = blkNode->Addr();
    genConsumeReg(dstAddr);
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genConsumeBlockSrc: Ensure that the block source address is in its
//                     allocated register if it is non-local.
// Arguments:
//    blkNode - The block node
//
// Return Value:
//    Returns the source address node, if it is non-local,
//    and nullptr otherwise.

GenTree* CodeGen::genConsumeBlockSrc(GenTreeBlk* blkNode)
{
    GenTree* src = blkNode->Data();
    if (blkNode->OperIsCopyBlkOp())
    {
        // For a CopyBlk we need the address of the source.
        if (src->OperGet() == GT_IND)
        {
            src = src->gtOp.gtOp1;
        }
        else
        {
            // This must be a local.
            // For this case, there is no source address register, as it is a
            // stack-based address.
            assert(src->OperIsLocal());
            return nullptr;
        }
    }
    genConsumeReg(src);
    return src;
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genConsumeBlockOp: Ensure that the block's operands are enregistered
//                    as needed.
// Arguments:
//    blkNode - The block node
//
// Notes:
//    This ensures that the operands are consumed in the proper order to
//    obey liveness modeling.

void CodeGen::genConsumeBlockOp(GenTreeBlk* blkNode, regNumber dstReg, regNumber srcReg, regNumber sizeReg)
{
    // We have to consume the registers, and perform any copies, in the actual execution order.
    // The nominal order is: dst, src, size.  However this may have been changed
    // with reverse flags on the blkNode and the setting of gtEvalSizeFirst in the case of a dynamic
    // block size.
    // Note that the register allocator ensures that the registers ON THE NODES will not interfere
    // with one another if consumed (i.e. reloaded or moved to their ASSIGNED reg) in execution order.
    // Further, it ensures that they will not interfere with one another if they are then copied
    // to the REQUIRED register (if a fixed register requirement) in execution order.  This requires,
    // then, that we first consume all the operands, then do any necessary moves.

    GenTree* dstAddr       = blkNode->Addr();
    GenTree* src           = nullptr;
    unsigned blockSize     = blkNode->Size();
    GenTree* size          = nullptr;
    bool     evalSizeFirst = true;

    if (blkNode->OperGet() == GT_STORE_DYN_BLK)
    {
        evalSizeFirst = blkNode->AsDynBlk()->gtEvalSizeFirst;
        size          = blkNode->AsDynBlk()->gtDynamicSize;
    }

    // First, consusme all the sources in order
    if (evalSizeFirst)
    {
        genConsumeBlockSize(blkNode, sizeReg);
    }
    if (blkNode->IsReverseOp())
    {
        src = genConsumeBlockSrc(blkNode);
        genConsumeBlockDst(blkNode);
    }
    else
    {
        genConsumeBlockDst(blkNode);
        src = genConsumeBlockSrc(blkNode);
    }
    if (!evalSizeFirst)
    {
        genConsumeBlockSize(blkNode, sizeReg);
    }
    // Next, perform any necessary moves.
    if (evalSizeFirst && (size != nullptr) && (size->gtRegNum != sizeReg))
    {
        inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, sizeReg, size->gtRegNum, size->TypeGet());
    }
    if (blkNode->IsReverseOp())
    {
        if ((src != nullptr) && (src->gtRegNum != srcReg))
        {
            inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, srcReg, src->gtRegNum, src->TypeGet());
        }
        if (dstAddr->gtRegNum != dstReg)
        {
            inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, dstReg, dstAddr->gtRegNum, dstAddr->TypeGet());
        }
    }
    else
    {
        if (dstAddr->gtRegNum != dstReg)
        {
            inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, dstReg, dstAddr->gtRegNum, dstAddr->TypeGet());
        }
        if ((src != nullptr) && (src->gtRegNum != srcReg))
        {
            inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, srcReg, src->gtRegNum, src->TypeGet());
        }
    }
    if (!evalSizeFirst && size != nullptr && (size->gtRegNum != sizeReg))
    {
        inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, sizeReg, size->gtRegNum, size->TypeGet());
    }
}

//-------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genProduceReg: do liveness update for register produced by the current
// node in codegen.
//
// Arguments:
//     tree   -  Gentree node
//
// Return Value:
//     None.
void CodeGen::genProduceReg(GenTree* tree)
{
    if (tree->gtFlags & GTF_SPILL)
    {
        // Code for GT_COPY node gets generated as part of consuming regs by its parent.
        // A GT_COPY node in turn produces reg result and it should never be marked to
        // spill.
        //
        // Similarly GT_RELOAD node gets generated as part of consuming regs by its
        // parent and should never be marked for spilling.
        noway_assert(!tree->IsCopyOrReload());

        if (genIsRegCandidateLocal(tree))
        {
            // Store local variable to its home location.
            tree->gtFlags &= ~GTF_REG_VAL;
            // Ensure that lclVar stores are typed correctly.
            unsigned varNum = tree->gtLclVarCommon.gtLclNum;
            assert(!compiler->lvaTable[varNum].lvNormalizeOnStore() ||
                   (tree->TypeGet() == genActualType(compiler->lvaTable[varNum].TypeGet())));
            inst_TT_RV(ins_Store(tree->gtType, compiler->isSIMDTypeLocalAligned(varNum)), tree, tree->gtRegNum);
        }
        else
        {
            // In case of multi-reg call node, spill flag on call node
            // indicates that one or more of its allocated regs need to
            // be spilled.  Call node needs to be further queried to
            // know which of its result regs needs to be spilled.
            if (tree->IsMultiRegCall())
            {
                GenTreeCall*    call        = tree->AsCall();
                ReturnTypeDesc* retTypeDesc = call->GetReturnTypeDesc();
                unsigned        regCount    = retTypeDesc->GetReturnRegCount();

                for (unsigned i = 0; i < regCount; ++i)
                {
                    unsigned flags = call->GetRegSpillFlagByIdx(i);
                    if ((flags & GTF_SPILL) != 0)
                    {
                        regNumber reg = call->GetRegNumByIdx(i);
                        call->SetInReg();
                        regSet.rsSpillTree(reg, call, i);
                        gcInfo.gcMarkRegSetNpt(genRegMask(reg));
                    }
                }
            }
            else
            {
                tree->SetInReg();
                regSet.rsSpillTree(tree->gtRegNum, tree);
                gcInfo.gcMarkRegSetNpt(genRegMask(tree->gtRegNum));
            }

            tree->gtFlags |= GTF_SPILLED;
            tree->gtFlags &= ~GTF_SPILL;

            return;
        }
    }

    genUpdateLife(tree);

    // If we've produced a register, mark it as a pointer, as needed.
    if (tree->gtHasReg())
    {
        // We only mark the register in the following cases:
        // 1. It is not a register candidate local. In this case, we're producing a
        //    register from a local, but the local is not a register candidate. Thus,
        //    we must be loading it as a temp register, and any "last use" flag on
        //    the register wouldn't be relevant.
        // 2. The register candidate local is going dead. There's no point to mark
        //    the register as live, with a GC pointer, if the variable is dead.
        if (!genIsRegCandidateLocal(tree) || ((tree->gtFlags & GTF_VAR_DEATH) == 0))
        {
            // Multi-reg call node will produce more than one register result.
            // Mark all the regs produced by call node.
            if (tree->IsMultiRegCall())
            {
                GenTreeCall*    call        = tree->AsCall();
                ReturnTypeDesc* retTypeDesc = call->GetReturnTypeDesc();
                unsigned        regCount    = retTypeDesc->GetReturnRegCount();

                for (unsigned i = 0; i < regCount; ++i)
                {
                    regNumber reg  = call->GetRegNumByIdx(i);
                    var_types type = retTypeDesc->GetReturnRegType(i);
                    gcInfo.gcMarkRegPtrVal(reg, type);
                }
            }
            else if (tree->IsCopyOrReloadOfMultiRegCall())
            {
                // we should never see reload of multi-reg call here
                // because GT_RELOAD gets generated in reg consuming path.
                noway_assert(tree->OperGet() == GT_COPY);

                // A multi-reg GT_COPY node produces those regs to which
                // copy has taken place.
                GenTreeCopyOrReload* copy        = tree->AsCopyOrReload();
                GenTreeCall*         call        = copy->gtGetOp1()->AsCall();
                ReturnTypeDesc*      retTypeDesc = call->GetReturnTypeDesc();
                unsigned             regCount    = retTypeDesc->GetReturnRegCount();

                for (unsigned i = 0; i < regCount; ++i)
                {
                    var_types type    = retTypeDesc->GetReturnRegType(i);
                    regNumber fromReg = call->GetRegNumByIdx(i);
                    regNumber toReg   = copy->GetRegNumByIdx(i);

                    if (toReg != REG_NA)
                    {
                        gcInfo.gcMarkRegPtrVal(toReg, type);
                    }
                }
            }
            else
            {
                gcInfo.gcMarkRegPtrVal(tree->gtRegNum, tree->TypeGet());
            }
        }
    }
    tree->SetInReg();
}

// transfer gc/byref status of src reg to dst reg
void CodeGen::genTransferRegGCState(regNumber dst, regNumber src)
{
    regMaskTP srcMask = genRegMask(src);
    regMaskTP dstMask = genRegMask(dst);

    if (gcInfo.gcRegGCrefSetCur & srcMask)
    {
        gcInfo.gcMarkRegSetGCref(dstMask);
    }
    else if (gcInfo.gcRegByrefSetCur & srcMask)
    {
        gcInfo.gcMarkRegSetByref(dstMask);
    }
    else
    {
        gcInfo.gcMarkRegSetNpt(dstMask);
    }
}

// generates an ip-relative call or indirect call via reg ('call reg')
//     pass in 'addr' for a relative call or 'base' for a indirect register call
//     methHnd - optional, only used for pretty printing
//     retSize - emitter type of return for GC purposes, should be EA_BYREF, EA_GCREF, or EA_PTRSIZE(not GC)
void CodeGen::genEmitCall(int                   callType,
                          CORINFO_METHOD_HANDLE methHnd,
                          INDEBUG_LDISASM_COMMA(CORINFO_SIG_INFO* sigInfo) void* addr X86_ARG(ssize_t argSize),
                          emitAttr retSize MULTIREG_HAS_SECOND_GC_RET_ONLY_ARG(emitAttr secondRetSize),
                          IL_OFFSETX ilOffset,
                          regNumber  base,
                          bool       isJump,
                          bool       isNoGC)
{
#if !defined(_TARGET_X86_)
    ssize_t argSize = 0;
#endif // !defined(_TARGET_X86_)
    getEmitter()->emitIns_Call(emitter::EmitCallType(callType), methHnd, INDEBUG_LDISASM_COMMA(sigInfo) addr, argSize,
                               retSize MULTIREG_HAS_SECOND_GC_RET_ONLY_ARG(secondRetSize), gcInfo.gcVarPtrSetCur,
                               gcInfo.gcRegGCrefSetCur, gcInfo.gcRegByrefSetCur, ilOffset, base, REG_NA, 0, 0, isJump,
                               emitter::emitNoGChelper(compiler->eeGetHelperNum(methHnd)));
}

// generates an indirect call via addressing mode (call []) given an indir node
//     methHnd - optional, only used for pretty printing
//     retSize - emitter type of return for GC purposes, should be EA_BYREF, EA_GCREF, or EA_PTRSIZE(not GC)
void CodeGen::genEmitCall(int                   callType,
                          CORINFO_METHOD_HANDLE methHnd,
                          INDEBUG_LDISASM_COMMA(CORINFO_SIG_INFO* sigInfo) GenTreeIndir* indir X86_ARG(ssize_t argSize),
                          emitAttr retSize MULTIREG_HAS_SECOND_GC_RET_ONLY_ARG(emitAttr secondRetSize),
                          IL_OFFSETX ilOffset)
{
#if !defined(_TARGET_X86_)
    ssize_t argSize = 0;
#endif // !defined(_TARGET_X86_)
    genConsumeAddress(indir->Addr());

    getEmitter()->emitIns_Call(emitter::EmitCallType(callType), methHnd, INDEBUG_LDISASM_COMMA(sigInfo) nullptr,
                               argSize, retSize MULTIREG_HAS_SECOND_GC_RET_ONLY_ARG(secondRetSize),
                               gcInfo.gcVarPtrSetCur, gcInfo.gcRegGCrefSetCur, gcInfo.gcRegByrefSetCur, ilOffset,
                               indir->Base() ? indir->Base()->gtRegNum : REG_NA,
                               indir->Index() ? indir->Index()->gtRegNum : REG_NA, indir->Scale(), indir->Offset());
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genStoreInd: Generate code for a GT_STOREIND node.
//
// Arguments:
//    treeNode - The GT_STOREIND node for which to generate code.
//
// Return Value:
//    none

void CodeGen::genStoreInd(GenTreePtr node)
{
    assert(node->OperGet() == GT_STOREIND);

#ifdef FEATURE_SIMD
    // Storing Vector3 of size 12 bytes through indirection
    if (node->TypeGet() == TYP_SIMD12)
    {
        genStoreIndTypeSIMD12(node);
        return;
    }
#endif // FEATURE_SIMD

    GenTreeStoreInd* storeInd   = node->AsStoreInd();
    GenTree*         data       = storeInd->Data();
    GenTree*         addr       = storeInd->Addr();
    var_types        targetType = storeInd->TypeGet();

    assert(!varTypeIsFloating(targetType) || (targetType == data->TypeGet()));

    GCInfo::WriteBarrierForm writeBarrierForm = gcInfo.gcIsWriteBarrierCandidate(storeInd, data);
    if (writeBarrierForm != GCInfo::WBF_NoBarrier)
    {
        // data and addr must be in registers.
        // Consume both registers so that any copies of interfering registers are taken care of.
        genConsumeOperands(storeInd->AsOp());

        if (genEmitOptimizedGCWriteBarrier(writeBarrierForm, addr, data))
        {
            return;
        }

        // At this point, we should not have any interference.
        // That is, 'data' must not be in REG_ARG_0, as that is where 'addr' must go.
        noway_assert(data->gtRegNum != REG_ARG_0);

        // addr goes in REG_ARG_0
        if (addr->gtRegNum != REG_ARG_0)
        {
            inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, REG_ARG_0, addr->gtRegNum, addr->TypeGet());
        }

        // data goes in REG_ARG_1
        if (data->gtRegNum != REG_ARG_1)
        {
            inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, REG_ARG_1, data->gtRegNum, data->TypeGet());
        }

        genGCWriteBarrier(storeInd, writeBarrierForm);
    }
    else
    {
        bool     reverseOps    = ((storeInd->gtFlags & GTF_REVERSE_OPS) != 0);
        bool     dataIsUnary   = false;
        bool     isRMWMemoryOp = storeInd->IsRMWMemoryOp();
        GenTree* rmwSrc        = nullptr;

        // We must consume the operands in the proper execution order, so that liveness is
        // updated appropriately.
        if (!reverseOps)
        {
            genConsumeAddress(addr);
        }

        // If storeInd represents a RMW memory op then its data is a non-leaf node marked as contained
        // and non-indir operand of data is the source of RMW memory op.
        if (isRMWMemoryOp)
        {
            assert(data->isContained() && !data->OperIsLeaf());

            GenTreePtr rmwDst = nullptr;

            dataIsUnary = (GenTree::OperIsUnary(data->OperGet()) != 0);
            if (!dataIsUnary)
            {
                if (storeInd->IsRMWDstOp1())
                {
                    rmwDst = data->gtGetOp1();
                    rmwSrc = data->gtGetOp2();
                }
                else
                {
                    assert(storeInd->IsRMWDstOp2());
                    rmwDst = data->gtGetOp2();
                    rmwSrc = data->gtGetOp1();
                }

                genConsumeRegs(rmwSrc);
            }
            else
            {
                // *(p) = oper *(p): Here addr = p, rmwsrc=rmwDst = *(p) i.e. GT_IND(p)
                // For unary RMW ops, src and dst of RMW memory op is the same.  Lower
                // clears operand counts on rmwSrc and we don't need to perform a
                // genConsumeReg() on it.
                assert(storeInd->IsRMWDstOp1());
                rmwSrc = data->gtGetOp1();
                rmwDst = data->gtGetOp1();
                assert(rmwSrc->isContained());
            }

            assert(rmwSrc != nullptr);
            assert(rmwDst != nullptr);
            assert(Lowering::IndirsAreEquivalent(rmwDst, storeInd));
        }
        else
        {
            genConsumeRegs(data);
        }

        if (reverseOps)
        {
            genConsumeAddress(addr);
        }

        if (isRMWMemoryOp)
        {
            if (dataIsUnary)
            {
                // generate code for unary RMW memory ops like neg/not
                getEmitter()->emitInsRMW(genGetInsForOper(data->OperGet(), data->TypeGet()), emitTypeSize(storeInd),
                                         storeInd);
            }
            else
            {
                if (data->OperIsShiftOrRotate())
                {
                    // Generate code for shift RMW memory ops.
                    // The data address needs to be op1 (it must be [addr] = [addr] <shift> <amount>, not [addr] =
                    // <amount> <shift> [addr]).
                    assert(storeInd->IsRMWDstOp1());
                    assert(rmwSrc == data->gtGetOp2());
                    genCodeForShiftRMW(storeInd);
                }
                else
                {
                    // generate code for remaining binary RMW memory ops like add/sub/and/or/xor
                    getEmitter()->emitInsRMW(genGetInsForOper(data->OperGet(), data->TypeGet()), emitTypeSize(storeInd),
                                             storeInd, rmwSrc);
                }
            }
        }
        else
        {
            getEmitter()->emitInsMov(ins_Store(data->TypeGet()), emitTypeSize(storeInd), storeInd);
        }
    }
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genEmitOptimizedGCWriteBarrier: Generate write barrier store using the optimized
// helper functions.
//
// Arguments:
//    writeBarrierForm - the write barrier form to use
//    addr - the address at which to do the store
//    data - the data to store
//
// Return Value:
//    true if an optimized write barrier form was used, false if not. If this
//    function returns false, the caller must emit a "standard" write barrier.

bool CodeGen::genEmitOptimizedGCWriteBarrier(GCInfo::WriteBarrierForm writeBarrierForm, GenTree* addr, GenTree* data)
{
    assert(writeBarrierForm != GCInfo::WBF_NoBarrier);

#if defined(_TARGET_X86_) && NOGC_WRITE_BARRIERS
    bool useOptimizedWriteBarriers = true;

#ifdef DEBUG
    useOptimizedWriteBarriers =
        (writeBarrierForm != GCInfo::WBF_NoBarrier_CheckNotHeapInDebug); // This one is always a call to a C++ method.
#endif

    if (!useOptimizedWriteBarriers)
    {
        return false;
    }

    const static int regToHelper[2][8] = {
        // If the target is known to be in managed memory
        {
            CORINFO_HELP_ASSIGN_REF_EAX, CORINFO_HELP_ASSIGN_REF_ECX, -1, CORINFO_HELP_ASSIGN_REF_EBX, -1,
            CORINFO_HELP_ASSIGN_REF_EBP, CORINFO_HELP_ASSIGN_REF_ESI, CORINFO_HELP_ASSIGN_REF_EDI,
        },

        // Don't know if the target is in managed memory
        {
            CORINFO_HELP_CHECKED_ASSIGN_REF_EAX, CORINFO_HELP_CHECKED_ASSIGN_REF_ECX, -1,
            CORINFO_HELP_CHECKED_ASSIGN_REF_EBX, -1, CORINFO_HELP_CHECKED_ASSIGN_REF_EBP,
            CORINFO_HELP_CHECKED_ASSIGN_REF_ESI, CORINFO_HELP_CHECKED_ASSIGN_REF_EDI,
        },
    };

    noway_assert(regToHelper[0][REG_EAX] == CORINFO_HELP_ASSIGN_REF_EAX);
    noway_assert(regToHelper[0][REG_ECX] == CORINFO_HELP_ASSIGN_REF_ECX);
    noway_assert(regToHelper[0][REG_EBX] == CORINFO_HELP_ASSIGN_REF_EBX);
    noway_assert(regToHelper[0][REG_ESP] == -1);
    noway_assert(regToHelper[0][REG_EBP] == CORINFO_HELP_ASSIGN_REF_EBP);
    noway_assert(regToHelper[0][REG_ESI] == CORINFO_HELP_ASSIGN_REF_ESI);
    noway_assert(regToHelper[0][REG_EDI] == CORINFO_HELP_ASSIGN_REF_EDI);

    noway_assert(regToHelper[1][REG_EAX] == CORINFO_HELP_CHECKED_ASSIGN_REF_EAX);
    noway_assert(regToHelper[1][REG_ECX] == CORINFO_HELP_CHECKED_ASSIGN_REF_ECX);
    noway_assert(regToHelper[1][REG_EBX] == CORINFO_HELP_CHECKED_ASSIGN_REF_EBX);
    noway_assert(regToHelper[1][REG_ESP] == -1);
    noway_assert(regToHelper[1][REG_EBP] == CORINFO_HELP_CHECKED_ASSIGN_REF_EBP);
    noway_assert(regToHelper[1][REG_ESI] == CORINFO_HELP_CHECKED_ASSIGN_REF_ESI);
    noway_assert(regToHelper[1][REG_EDI] == CORINFO_HELP_CHECKED_ASSIGN_REF_EDI);

    regNumber reg = data->gtRegNum;
    noway_assert((reg != REG_ESP) && (reg != REG_WRITE_BARRIER));

    // Generate the following code:
    //            lea     edx, addr
    //            call    write_barrier_helper_reg

    // addr goes in REG_ARG_0
    if (addr->gtRegNum != REG_WRITE_BARRIER) // REVIEW: can it ever not already by in this register?
    {
        inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, REG_WRITE_BARRIER, addr->gtRegNum, addr->TypeGet());
    }

    unsigned tgtAnywhere = 0;
    if (writeBarrierForm != GCInfo::WBF_BarrierUnchecked)
    {
        tgtAnywhere = 1;
    }

    // We might want to call a modified version of genGCWriteBarrier() to get the benefit of
    // the FEATURE_COUNT_GC_WRITE_BARRIERS code there, but that code doesn't look like it works
    // with rationalized RyuJIT IR. So, for now, just emit the helper call directly here.

    genEmitHelperCall(regToHelper[tgtAnywhere][reg],
                      0,           // argSize
                      EA_PTRSIZE); // retSize

    return true;
#else  // !defined(_TARGET_X86_) || !NOGC_WRITE_BARRIERS
    return false;
#endif // !defined(_TARGET_X86_) || !NOGC_WRITE_BARRIERS
}

// Produce code for a GT_CALL node
void CodeGen::genCallInstruction(GenTreePtr node)
{
    GenTreeCall* call = node->AsCall();
    assert(call->gtOper == GT_CALL);

    gtCallTypes callType = (gtCallTypes)call->gtCallType;

    IL_OFFSETX ilOffset = BAD_IL_OFFSET;

    // all virtuals should have been expanded into a control expression
    assert(!call->IsVirtual() || call->gtControlExpr || call->gtCallAddr);

    // Consume all the arg regs
    for (GenTreePtr list = call->gtCallLateArgs; list; list = list->MoveNext())
    {
        assert(list->IsList());

        GenTreePtr argNode = list->Current();

        fgArgTabEntryPtr curArgTabEntry = compiler->gtArgEntryByNode(call, argNode->gtSkipReloadOrCopy());
        assert(curArgTabEntry);

        if (curArgTabEntry->regNum == REG_STK)
        {
            continue;
        }

#ifdef FEATURE_UNIX_AMD64_STRUCT_PASSING
        // Deal with multi register passed struct args.
        if (argNode->OperGet() == GT_LIST)
        {
            GenTreeArgList* argListPtr   = argNode->AsArgList();
            unsigned        iterationNum = 0;
            for (; argListPtr != nullptr; argListPtr = argListPtr->Rest(), iterationNum++)
            {
                GenTreePtr putArgRegNode = argListPtr->gtOp.gtOp1;
                assert(putArgRegNode->gtOper == GT_PUTARG_REG);
                regNumber argReg = REG_NA;

                if (iterationNum == 0)
                {
                    argReg = curArgTabEntry->regNum;
                }
                else
                {
                    assert(iterationNum == 1);
                    argReg = curArgTabEntry->otherRegNum;
                }

                genConsumeReg(putArgRegNode);

                // Validate the putArgRegNode has the right type.
                assert(putArgRegNode->TypeGet() ==
                       compiler->GetTypeFromClassificationAndSizes(curArgTabEntry->structDesc
                                                                       .eightByteClassifications[iterationNum],
                                                                   curArgTabEntry->structDesc
                                                                       .eightByteSizes[iterationNum]));
                if (putArgRegNode->gtRegNum != argReg)
                {
                    inst_RV_RV(ins_Move_Extend(putArgRegNode->TypeGet(), putArgRegNode->InReg()), argReg,
                               putArgRegNode->gtRegNum);
                }
            }
        }
        else
#endif // FEATURE_UNIX_AMD64_STRUCT_PASSING
        {
            regNumber argReg = curArgTabEntry->regNum;
            genConsumeReg(argNode);
            if (argNode->gtRegNum != argReg)
            {
                inst_RV_RV(ins_Move_Extend(argNode->TypeGet(), argNode->InReg()), argReg, argNode->gtRegNum);
            }
        }

#if FEATURE_VARARG
        // In the case of a varargs call,
        // the ABI dictates that if we have floating point args,
        // we must pass the enregistered arguments in both the
        // integer and floating point registers so, let's do that.
        if (call->IsVarargs() && varTypeIsFloating(argNode))
        {
            regNumber   targetReg = compiler->getCallArgIntRegister(argNode->gtRegNum);
            instruction ins       = ins_CopyFloatToInt(argNode->TypeGet(), TYP_LONG);
            inst_RV_RV(ins, argNode->gtRegNum, targetReg);
        }
#endif // FEATURE_VARARG
    }

#if defined(_TARGET_X86_) || defined(FEATURE_UNIX_AMD64_STRUCT_PASSING)
    // The call will pop its arguments.
    // for each putarg_stk:
    ssize_t    stackArgBytes = 0;
    GenTreePtr args          = call->gtCallArgs;
    while (args)
    {
        GenTreePtr arg = args->gtOp.gtOp1;
        if (arg->OperGet() != GT_ARGPLACE && !(arg->gtFlags & GTF_LATE_ARG))
        {
#if defined(_TARGET_X86_)
            assert((arg->OperGet() == GT_PUTARG_STK) || (arg->OperGet() == GT_LONG));
            if (arg->OperGet() == GT_LONG)
            {
                assert((arg->gtGetOp1()->OperGet() == GT_PUTARG_STK) && (arg->gtGetOp2()->OperGet() == GT_PUTARG_STK));
            }
#endif // defined(_TARGET_X86_)

#ifdef FEATURE_UNIX_AMD64_STRUCT_PASSING
            if (genActualType(arg->TypeGet()) == TYP_STRUCT)
            {
                assert(arg->OperGet() == GT_PUTARG_STK);

                GenTreeObj* obj = arg->gtGetOp1()->AsObj();
                stackArgBytes   = compiler->info.compCompHnd->getClassSize(obj->gtClass);
            }
            else
#endif // FEATURE_UNIX_AMD64_STRUCT_PASSING

                stackArgBytes += genTypeSize(genActualType(arg->TypeGet()));
        }
        args = args->gtOp.gtOp2;
    }
#endif // defined(_TARGET_X86_) || defined(FEATURE_UNIX_AMD64_STRUCT_PASSING)

    // Insert a null check on "this" pointer if asked.
    if (call->NeedsNullCheck())
    {
        const regNumber regThis = genGetThisArgReg(call);
        getEmitter()->emitIns_AR_R(INS_cmp, EA_4BYTE, regThis, regThis, 0);
    }

    // Either gtControlExpr != null or gtCallAddr != null or it is a direct non-virtual call to a user or helper method.
    CORINFO_METHOD_HANDLE methHnd;
    GenTree*              target = call->gtControlExpr;
    if (callType == CT_INDIRECT)
    {
        assert(target == nullptr);
        target  = call->gtCall.gtCallAddr;
        methHnd = nullptr;
    }
    else
    {
        methHnd = call->gtCallMethHnd;
    }

    CORINFO_SIG_INFO* sigInfo = nullptr;
#ifdef DEBUG
    // Pass the call signature information down into the emitter so the emitter can associate
    // native call sites with the signatures they were generated from.
    if (callType != CT_HELPER)
    {
        sigInfo = call->callSig;
    }
#endif // DEBUG

    // If fast tail call, then we are done.  In this case we setup the args (both reg args
    // and stack args in incoming arg area) and call target in rax.  Epilog sequence would
    // generate "jmp rax".
    if (call->IsFastTailCall())
    {
        // Don't support fast tail calling JIT helpers
        assert(callType != CT_HELPER);

        // Fast tail calls materialize call target either in gtControlExpr or in gtCallAddr.
        assert(target != nullptr);

        genConsumeReg(target);
        if (target->gtRegNum != REG_RAX)
        {
            inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, REG_RAX, target->gtRegNum);
        }
        return;
    }

    // For a pinvoke to unmanged code we emit a label to clear
    // the GC pointer state before the callsite.
    // We can't utilize the typical lazy killing of GC pointers
    // at (or inside) the callsite.
    if (call->IsUnmanaged())
    {
        genDefineTempLabel(genCreateTempLabel());
    }

    // Determine return value size(s).
    ReturnTypeDesc* retTypeDesc   = call->GetReturnTypeDesc();
    emitAttr        retSize       = EA_PTRSIZE;
    emitAttr        secondRetSize = EA_UNKNOWN;

    if (call->HasMultiRegRetVal())
    {
        retSize       = emitTypeSize(retTypeDesc->GetReturnRegType(0));
        secondRetSize = emitTypeSize(retTypeDesc->GetReturnRegType(1));
    }
    else
    {
        assert(!varTypeIsStruct(call));

        if (call->gtType == TYP_REF || call->gtType == TYP_ARRAY)
        {
            retSize = EA_GCREF;
        }
        else if (call->gtType == TYP_BYREF)
        {
            retSize = EA_BYREF;
        }
    }

    bool            fPossibleSyncHelperCall = false;
    CorInfoHelpFunc helperNum               = CORINFO_HELP_UNDEF;

#ifdef DEBUGGING_SUPPORT
    // We need to propagate the IL offset information to the call instruction, so we can emit
    // an IL to native mapping record for the call, to support managed return value debugging.
    // We don't want tail call helper calls that were converted from normal calls to get a record,
    // so we skip this hash table lookup logic in that case.
    if (compiler->opts.compDbgInfo && compiler->genCallSite2ILOffsetMap != nullptr && !call->IsTailCall())
    {
        (void)compiler->genCallSite2ILOffsetMap->Lookup(call, &ilOffset);
    }
#endif // DEBUGGING_SUPPORT

#if defined(_TARGET_X86_)
    // If the callee pops the arguments, we pass a positive value as the argSize, and the emitter will
    // adjust its stack level accordingly.
    // If the caller needs to explicitly pop its arguments, we must pass a negative value, and then do the
    // pop when we're done.
    ssize_t argSizeForEmitter = stackArgBytes;
    if ((call->gtFlags & GTF_CALL_POP_ARGS) != 0)
    {
        argSizeForEmitter = -stackArgBytes;
    }

#endif // defined(_TARGET_X86_)

    if (target != nullptr)
    {
        if (target->isContainedIndir())
        {
            if (target->AsIndir()->HasBase() && target->AsIndir()->Base()->isContainedIntOrIImmed())
            {
                // Note that if gtControlExpr is an indir of an absolute address, we mark it as
                // contained only if it can be encoded as PC-relative offset.
                assert(target->AsIndir()->Base()->AsIntConCommon()->FitsInAddrBase(compiler));

                genEmitCall(emitter::EC_FUNC_TOKEN_INDIR, methHnd,
                            INDEBUG_LDISASM_COMMA(sigInfo)(void*) target->AsIndir()
                                ->Base()
                                ->AsIntConCommon()
                                ->IconValue() X86_ARG(argSizeForEmitter),
                            retSize MULTIREG_HAS_SECOND_GC_RET_ONLY_ARG(secondRetSize), ilOffset);
            }
            else
            {
                genEmitCall(emitter::EC_INDIR_ARD, methHnd,
                            INDEBUG_LDISASM_COMMA(sigInfo) target->AsIndir() X86_ARG(argSizeForEmitter),
                            retSize MULTIREG_HAS_SECOND_GC_RET_ONLY_ARG(secondRetSize), ilOffset);
            }
        }
        else
        {
            // We have already generated code for gtControlExpr evaluating it into a register.
            // We just need to emit "call reg" in this case.
            assert(genIsValidIntReg(target->gtRegNum));
            genEmitCall(emitter::EC_INDIR_R, methHnd,
                        INDEBUG_LDISASM_COMMA(sigInfo) nullptr // addr
                        X86_ARG(argSizeForEmitter),
                        retSize MULTIREG_HAS_SECOND_GC_RET_ONLY_ARG(secondRetSize), ilOffset, genConsumeReg(target));
        }
    }
#ifdef FEATURE_READYTORUN_COMPILER
    else if (call->gtEntryPoint.addr != nullptr)
    {
        genEmitCall((call->gtEntryPoint.accessType == IAT_VALUE) ? emitter::EC_FUNC_TOKEN
                                                                 : emitter::EC_FUNC_TOKEN_INDIR,
                    methHnd, INDEBUG_LDISASM_COMMA(sigInfo)(void*) call->gtEntryPoint.addr X86_ARG(argSizeForEmitter),
                    retSize MULTIREG_HAS_SECOND_GC_RET_ONLY_ARG(secondRetSize), ilOffset);
    }
#endif
    else
    {
        // Generate a direct call to a non-virtual user defined or helper method
        assert(callType == CT_HELPER || callType == CT_USER_FUNC);

        void* addr = nullptr;
        if (callType == CT_HELPER)
        {
            // Direct call to a helper method.
            helperNum = compiler->eeGetHelperNum(methHnd);
            noway_assert(helperNum != CORINFO_HELP_UNDEF);

            void* pAddr = nullptr;
            addr        = compiler->compGetHelperFtn(helperNum, (void**)&pAddr);

            if (addr == nullptr)
            {
                addr = pAddr;
            }

            // tracking of region protected by the monitor in synchronized methods
            if (compiler->info.compFlags & CORINFO_FLG_SYNCH)
            {
                fPossibleSyncHelperCall = true;
            }
        }
        else
        {
            // Direct call to a non-virtual user function.
            addr = call->gtDirectCallAddress;
        }

        // Non-virtual direct calls to known addresses
        genEmitCall(emitter::EC_FUNC_TOKEN, methHnd, INDEBUG_LDISASM_COMMA(sigInfo) addr X86_ARG(argSizeForEmitter),
                    retSize MULTIREG_HAS_SECOND_GC_RET_ONLY_ARG(secondRetSize), ilOffset);
    }

    // if it was a pinvoke we may have needed to get the address of a label
    if (genPendingCallLabel)
    {
        assert(call->IsUnmanaged());
        genDefineTempLabel(genPendingCallLabel);
        genPendingCallLabel = nullptr;
    }

#if defined(_TARGET_X86_)
    // The call will pop its arguments.
    genStackLevel -= stackArgBytes;
#endif // defined(_TARGET_X86_)

    // Update GC info:
    // All Callee arg registers are trashed and no longer contain any GC pointers.
    // TODO-XArch-Bug?: As a matter of fact shouldn't we be killing all of callee trashed regs here?
    // For now we will assert that other than arg regs gc ref/byref set doesn't contain any other
    // registers from RBM_CALLEE_TRASH.
    assert((gcInfo.gcRegGCrefSetCur & (RBM_CALLEE_TRASH & ~RBM_ARG_REGS)) == 0);
    assert((gcInfo.gcRegByrefSetCur & (RBM_CALLEE_TRASH & ~RBM_ARG_REGS)) == 0);
    gcInfo.gcRegGCrefSetCur &= ~RBM_ARG_REGS;
    gcInfo.gcRegByrefSetCur &= ~RBM_ARG_REGS;

    var_types returnType = call->TypeGet();
    if (returnType != TYP_VOID)
    {
#ifdef _TARGET_X86_
        if (varTypeIsFloating(returnType))
        {
            // Spill the value from the fp stack.
            // Then, load it into the target register.
            call->gtFlags |= GTF_SPILL;
            regSet.rsSpillFPStack(call);
            call->gtFlags |= GTF_SPILLED;
            call->gtFlags &= ~GTF_SPILL;
        }
        else
#endif // _TARGET_X86_
        {
            regNumber returnReg;

            if (call->HasMultiRegRetVal())
            {
                assert(retTypeDesc != nullptr);
                unsigned regCount = retTypeDesc->GetReturnRegCount();

                // If regs allocated to call node are different from ABI return
                // regs in which the call has returned its result, move the result
                // to regs allocated to call node.
                for (unsigned i = 0; i < regCount; ++i)
                {
                    var_types regType      = retTypeDesc->GetReturnRegType(i);
                    returnReg              = retTypeDesc->GetABIReturnReg(i);
                    regNumber allocatedReg = call->GetRegNumByIdx(i);
                    if (returnReg != allocatedReg)
                    {
                        inst_RV_RV(ins_Copy(regType), allocatedReg, returnReg, regType);
                    }
                }

#ifdef FEATURE_SIMD
                // A Vector3 return value is stored in xmm0 and xmm1.
                // RyuJIT assumes that the upper unused bits of xmm1 are cleared but
                // the native compiler doesn't guarantee it.
                if (returnType == TYP_SIMD12)
                {
                    returnReg = retTypeDesc->GetABIReturnReg(1);
                    // Clear the upper 32 bits by two shift instructions.
                    // retReg = retReg << 96
                    // retReg = retReg >> 96
                    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_I(INS_pslldq, emitActualTypeSize(TYP_SIMD12), returnReg, 12);
                    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_I(INS_psrldq, emitActualTypeSize(TYP_SIMD12), returnReg, 12);
                }
#endif // FEATURE_SIMD
            }
            else
            {
#ifdef _TARGET_X86_
                if (call->IsHelperCall(compiler, CORINFO_HELP_INIT_PINVOKE_FRAME))
                {
                    // The x86 CORINFO_HELP_INIT_PINVOKE_FRAME helper uses a custom calling convention that returns with
                    // TCB in REG_PINVOKE_TCB. AMD64/ARM64 use the standard calling convention. fgMorphCall() sets the
                    // correct argument registers.
                    returnReg = REG_PINVOKE_TCB;
                }
                else
#endif // _TARGET_X86_
                    if (varTypeIsFloating(returnType))
                {
                    returnReg = REG_FLOATRET;
                }
                else
                {
                    returnReg = REG_INTRET;
                }

                if (call->gtRegNum != returnReg)
                {
                    inst_RV_RV(ins_Copy(returnType), call->gtRegNum, returnReg, returnType);
                }
            }

            genProduceReg(call);
        }
    }

    // If there is nothing next, that means the result is thrown away, so this value is not live.
    // However, for minopts or debuggable code, we keep it live to support managed return value debugging.
    if ((call->gtNext == nullptr) && !compiler->opts.MinOpts() && !compiler->opts.compDbgCode)
    {
        gcInfo.gcMarkRegSetNpt(RBM_INTRET);
    }

#if defined(_TARGET_X86_)
    //-------------------------------------------------------------------------
    // Create a label for tracking of region protected by the monitor in synchronized methods.
    // This needs to be here, rather than above where fPossibleSyncHelperCall is set,
    // so the GC state vars have been updated before creating the label.

    if (fPossibleSyncHelperCall)
    {
        switch (helperNum)
        {
            case CORINFO_HELP_MON_ENTER:
            case CORINFO_HELP_MON_ENTER_STATIC:
                noway_assert(compiler->syncStartEmitCookie == NULL);
                compiler->syncStartEmitCookie =
                    getEmitter()->emitAddLabel(gcInfo.gcVarPtrSetCur, gcInfo.gcRegGCrefSetCur, gcInfo.gcRegByrefSetCur);
                noway_assert(compiler->syncStartEmitCookie != NULL);
                break;
            case CORINFO_HELP_MON_EXIT:
            case CORINFO_HELP_MON_EXIT_STATIC:
                noway_assert(compiler->syncEndEmitCookie == NULL);
                compiler->syncEndEmitCookie =
                    getEmitter()->emitAddLabel(gcInfo.gcVarPtrSetCur, gcInfo.gcRegGCrefSetCur, gcInfo.gcRegByrefSetCur);
                noway_assert(compiler->syncEndEmitCookie != NULL);
                break;
            default:
                break;
        }
    }

    // Is the caller supposed to pop the arguments?
    if (((call->gtFlags & GTF_CALL_POP_ARGS) != 0) && (stackArgBytes != 0))
    {
        genAdjustSP(stackArgBytes);
    }
#endif // _TARGET_X86_
}

// Produce code for a GT_JMP node.
// The arguments of the caller needs to be transferred to the callee before exiting caller.
// The actual jump to callee is generated as part of caller epilog sequence.
// Therefore the codegen of GT_JMP is to ensure that the callee arguments are correctly setup.
void CodeGen::genJmpMethod(GenTreePtr jmp)
{
    assert(jmp->OperGet() == GT_JMP);
    assert(compiler->compJmpOpUsed);

    // If no arguments, nothing to do
    if (compiler->info.compArgsCount == 0)
    {
        return;
    }

    // Make sure register arguments are in their initial registers
    // and stack arguments are put back as well.
    unsigned   varNum;
    LclVarDsc* varDsc;

    // First move any en-registered stack arguments back to the stack.
    // At the same time any reg arg not in correct reg is moved back to its stack location.
    //
    // We are not strictly required to spill reg args that are not in the desired reg for a jmp call
    // But that would require us to deal with circularity while moving values around.  Spilling
    // to stack makes the implementation simple, which is not a bad trade off given Jmp calls
    // are not frequent.
    for (varNum = 0; (varNum < compiler->info.compArgsCount); varNum++)
    {
        varDsc = compiler->lvaTable + varNum;

        if (varDsc->lvPromoted)
        {
            noway_assert(varDsc->lvFieldCnt == 1); // We only handle one field here

            unsigned fieldVarNum = varDsc->lvFieldLclStart;
            varDsc               = compiler->lvaTable + fieldVarNum;
        }
        noway_assert(varDsc->lvIsParam);

        if (varDsc->lvIsRegArg && (varDsc->lvRegNum != REG_STK))
        {
            // Skip reg args which are already in its right register for jmp call.
            // If not, we will spill such args to their stack locations.
            //
            // If we need to generate a tail call profiler hook, then spill all
            // arg regs to free them up for the callback.
            if (!compiler->compIsProfilerHookNeeded() && (varDsc->lvRegNum == varDsc->lvArgReg))
            {
                continue;
            }
        }
        else if (varDsc->lvRegNum == REG_STK)
        {
            // Skip args which are currently living in stack.
            continue;
        }

        // If we came here it means either a reg argument not in the right register or
        // a stack argument currently living in a register.  In either case the following
        // assert should hold.
        assert(varDsc->lvRegNum != REG_STK);

        var_types loadType = varDsc->lvaArgType();
        getEmitter()->emitIns_S_R(ins_Store(loadType), emitTypeSize(loadType), varDsc->lvRegNum, varNum, 0);

        // Update lvRegNum life and GC info to indicate lvRegNum is dead and varDsc stack slot is going live.
        // Note that we cannot modify varDsc->lvRegNum here because another basic block may not be expecting it.
        // Therefore manually update life of varDsc->lvRegNum.
        regMaskTP tempMask = varDsc->lvRegMask();
        regSet.RemoveMaskVars(tempMask);
        gcInfo.gcMarkRegSetNpt(tempMask);
        if (compiler->lvaIsGCTracked(varDsc))
        {
#ifdef DEBUG
            if (!VarSetOps::IsMember(compiler, gcInfo.gcVarPtrSetCur, varDsc->lvVarIndex))
            {
                JITDUMP("\t\t\t\t\t\t\tVar V%02u becoming live\n", varNum);
            }
            else
            {
                JITDUMP("\t\t\t\t\t\t\tVar V%02u continuing live\n", varNum);
            }
#endif // DEBUG

            VarSetOps::AddElemD(compiler, gcInfo.gcVarPtrSetCur, varDsc->lvVarIndex);
        }
    }

#ifdef PROFILING_SUPPORTED
    // At this point all arg regs are free.
    // Emit tail call profiler callback.
    genProfilingLeaveCallback(CORINFO_HELP_PROF_FCN_TAILCALL);
#endif

    // Next move any un-enregistered register arguments back to their register.
    regMaskTP fixedIntArgMask = RBM_NONE;    // tracks the int arg regs occupying fixed args in case of a vararg method.
    unsigned  firstArgVarNum  = BAD_VAR_NUM; // varNum of the first argument in case of a vararg method.
    for (varNum = 0; (varNum < compiler->info.compArgsCount); varNum++)
    {
        varDsc = compiler->lvaTable + varNum;
        if (varDsc->lvPromoted)
        {
            noway_assert(varDsc->lvFieldCnt == 1); // We only handle one field here

            unsigned fieldVarNum = varDsc->lvFieldLclStart;
            varDsc               = compiler->lvaTable + fieldVarNum;
        }
        noway_assert(varDsc->lvIsParam);

        // Skip if arg not passed in a register.
        if (!varDsc->lvIsRegArg)
        {
            continue;
        }

#if defined(FEATURE_UNIX_AMD64_STRUCT_PASSING)
        if (varTypeIsStruct(varDsc))
        {
            CORINFO_CLASS_HANDLE typeHnd = varDsc->lvVerTypeInfo.GetClassHandle();
            assert(typeHnd != nullptr);

            SYSTEMV_AMD64_CORINFO_STRUCT_REG_PASSING_DESCRIPTOR structDesc;
            compiler->eeGetSystemVAmd64PassStructInRegisterDescriptor(typeHnd, &structDesc);
            assert(structDesc.passedInRegisters);

            unsigned __int8 offset0 = 0;
            unsigned __int8 offset1 = 0;
            var_types       type0   = TYP_UNKNOWN;
            var_types       type1   = TYP_UNKNOWN;

            // Get the eightbyte data
            compiler->GetStructTypeOffset(structDesc, &type0, &type1, &offset0, &offset1);

            // Move the values into the right registers.
            //

            // Update varDsc->lvArgReg and lvOtherArgReg life and GC Info to indicate varDsc stack slot is dead and
            // argReg is going live. Note that we cannot modify varDsc->lvRegNum and lvOtherArgReg here because another
            // basic block may not be expecting it. Therefore manually update life of argReg.  Note that GT_JMP marks
            // the end of the basic block and after which reg life and gc info will be recomputed for the new block in
            // genCodeForBBList().
            if (type0 != TYP_UNKNOWN)
            {
                getEmitter()->emitIns_R_S(ins_Load(type0), emitTypeSize(type0), varDsc->lvArgReg, varNum, offset0);
                regSet.rsMaskVars |= genRegMask(varDsc->lvArgReg);
                gcInfo.gcMarkRegPtrVal(varDsc->lvArgReg, type0);
            }

            if (type1 != TYP_UNKNOWN)
            {
                getEmitter()->emitIns_R_S(ins_Load(type1), emitTypeSize(type1), varDsc->lvOtherArgReg, varNum, offset1);
                regSet.rsMaskVars |= genRegMask(varDsc->lvOtherArgReg);
                gcInfo.gcMarkRegPtrVal(varDsc->lvOtherArgReg, type1);
            }

            if (varDsc->lvTracked)
            {
                VarSetOps::RemoveElemD(compiler, gcInfo.gcVarPtrSetCur, varDsc->lvVarIndex);
            }
        }
        else
#endif // !defined(FEATURE_UNIX_AMD64_STRUCT_PASSING)
        {
            // Register argument
            noway_assert(isRegParamType(genActualType(varDsc->TypeGet())));

            // Is register argument already in the right register?
            // If not load it from its stack location.
            var_types loadType = varDsc->lvaArgType();
            regNumber argReg   = varDsc->lvArgReg; // incoming arg register

            if (varDsc->lvRegNum != argReg)
            {
                assert(genIsValidReg(argReg));
                getEmitter()->emitIns_R_S(ins_Load(loadType), emitTypeSize(loadType), argReg, varNum, 0);

                // Update argReg life and GC Info to indicate varDsc stack slot is dead and argReg is going live.
                // Note that we cannot modify varDsc->lvRegNum here because another basic block may not be expecting it.
                // Therefore manually update life of argReg.  Note that GT_JMP marks the end of the basic block
                // and after which reg life and gc info will be recomputed for the new block in genCodeForBBList().
                regSet.AddMaskVars(genRegMask(argReg));
                gcInfo.gcMarkRegPtrVal(argReg, loadType);
                if (compiler->lvaIsGCTracked(varDsc))
                {
#ifdef DEBUG
                    if (VarSetOps::IsMember(compiler, gcInfo.gcVarPtrSetCur, varDsc->lvVarIndex))
                    {
                        JITDUMP("\t\t\t\t\t\t\tVar V%02u becoming dead\n", varNum);
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        JITDUMP("\t\t\t\t\t\t\tVar V%02u continuing dead\n", varNum);
                    }
#endif // DEBUG

                    VarSetOps::RemoveElemD(compiler, gcInfo.gcVarPtrSetCur, varDsc->lvVarIndex);
                }
            }
        }

#if FEATURE_VARARG && defined(_TARGET_AMD64_)
        // In case of a jmp call to a vararg method also pass the float/double arg in the corresponding int arg
        // register. This is due to the AMD64 ABI which requires floating point values passed to varargs functions to
        // be passed in both integer and floating point registers. It doesn't apply to x86, which passes floating point
        // values on the stack.
        if (compiler->info.compIsVarArgs)
        {
            regNumber intArgReg;
            var_types loadType = varDsc->lvaArgType();
            regNumber argReg   = varDsc->lvArgReg; // incoming arg register

            if (varTypeIsFloating(loadType))
            {
                intArgReg       = compiler->getCallArgIntRegister(argReg);
                instruction ins = ins_CopyFloatToInt(loadType, TYP_LONG);
                inst_RV_RV(ins, argReg, intArgReg, loadType);
            }
            else
            {
                intArgReg = argReg;
            }

            fixedIntArgMask |= genRegMask(intArgReg);

            if (intArgReg == REG_ARG_0)
            {
                assert(firstArgVarNum == BAD_VAR_NUM);
                firstArgVarNum = varNum;
            }
        }
#endif // FEATURE_VARARG
    }

#if FEATURE_VARARG && defined(_TARGET_AMD64_)
    // Jmp call to a vararg method - if the method has fewer than 4 fixed arguments,
    // load the remaining arg registers (both int and float) from the corresponding
    // shadow stack slots.  This is for the reason that we don't know the number and type
    // of non-fixed params passed by the caller, therefore we have to assume the worst case
    // of caller passing float/double args both in int and float arg regs.
    //
    // This doesn't apply to x86, which doesn't pass floating point values in floating
    // point registers.
    //
    // The caller could have passed gc-ref/byref type var args.  Since these are var args
    // the callee no way of knowing their gc-ness.  Therefore, mark the region that loads
    // remaining arg registers from shadow stack slots as non-gc interruptible.
    if (fixedIntArgMask != RBM_NONE)
    {
        assert(compiler->info.compIsVarArgs);
        assert(firstArgVarNum != BAD_VAR_NUM);

        regMaskTP remainingIntArgMask = RBM_ARG_REGS & ~fixedIntArgMask;
        if (remainingIntArgMask != RBM_NONE)
        {
            instruction insCopyIntToFloat = ins_CopyIntToFloat(TYP_LONG, TYP_DOUBLE);
            getEmitter()->emitDisableGC();
            for (int argNum = 0, argOffset = 0; argNum < MAX_REG_ARG; ++argNum)
            {
                regNumber argReg     = intArgRegs[argNum];
                regMaskTP argRegMask = genRegMask(argReg);

                if ((remainingIntArgMask & argRegMask) != 0)
                {
                    remainingIntArgMask &= ~argRegMask;
                    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_S(INS_mov, EA_8BYTE, argReg, firstArgVarNum, argOffset);

                    // also load it in corresponding float arg reg
                    regNumber floatReg = compiler->getCallArgFloatRegister(argReg);
                    inst_RV_RV(insCopyIntToFloat, floatReg, argReg);
                }

                argOffset += REGSIZE_BYTES;
            }
            getEmitter()->emitEnableGC();
        }
    }
#endif // FEATURE_VARARG
}

// produce code for a GT_LEA subnode
void CodeGen::genLeaInstruction(GenTreeAddrMode* lea)
{
    emitAttr size = emitTypeSize(lea);
    genConsumeOperands(lea);

    if (lea->Base() && lea->Index())
    {
        regNumber baseReg  = lea->Base()->gtRegNum;
        regNumber indexReg = lea->Index()->gtRegNum;
        getEmitter()->emitIns_R_ARX(INS_lea, size, lea->gtRegNum, baseReg, indexReg, lea->gtScale, lea->gtOffset);
    }
    else if (lea->Base())
    {
        getEmitter()->emitIns_R_AR(INS_lea, size, lea->gtRegNum, lea->Base()->gtRegNum, lea->gtOffset);
    }
    else if (lea->Index())
    {
        getEmitter()->emitIns_R_ARX(INS_lea, size, lea->gtRegNum, REG_NA, lea->Index()->gtRegNum, lea->gtScale,
                                    lea->gtOffset);
    }

    genProduceReg(lea);
}

//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genJumpKindsForTree:  Determine the number and kinds of conditional branches
//                       necessary to implement the given GT_CMP node
//
// Arguments:
//    cmpTree          - (input) The GenTree node that is used to set the Condition codes
//                     - The GenTree Relop node that was used to set the Condition codes
//   jmpKind[2]        - (output) One or two conditional branch instructions
//   jmpToTrueLabel[2] - (output) When true we branch to the true case
//                       When false we create a second label and branch to the false case
//                       Only GT_EQ for a floating point compares can have a false value.
//
// Return Value:
//    Sets the proper values into the array elements of jmpKind[] and jmpToTrueLabel[]
//
// Assumptions:
//    At least one conditional branch instruction will be returned.
//    Typically only one conditional branch is needed
//     and the second jmpKind[] value is set to EJ_NONE
//
// Notes:
//    jmpToTrueLabel[i]= true  implies branch when the compare operation is true.
//    jmpToTrueLabel[i]= false implies branch when the compare operation is false.
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

// static
void CodeGen::genJumpKindsForTree(GenTreePtr cmpTree, emitJumpKind jmpKind[2], bool jmpToTrueLabel[2])
{
    // Except for BEQ (=  ordered GT_EQ) both jumps are to the true label.
    jmpToTrueLabel[0] = true;
    jmpToTrueLabel[1] = true;

    // For integer comparisons just use genJumpKindForOper
    if (!varTypeIsFloating(cmpTree->gtOp.gtOp1->gtEffectiveVal()))
    {
        CompareKind compareKind = ((cmpTree->gtFlags & GTF_UNSIGNED) != 0) ? CK_UNSIGNED : CK_SIGNED;
        jmpKind[0]              = genJumpKindForOper(cmpTree->gtOper, compareKind);
        jmpKind[1]              = EJ_NONE;
    }
    else
    {
        assert(cmpTree->OperIsCompare());

        // For details on how we arrived at this mapping, see the comment block in genCodeForTreeNode()
        // while generating code for compare opererators (e.g. GT_EQ etc).
        if ((cmpTree->gtFlags & GTF_RELOP_NAN_UN) != 0)
        {
            // Must branch if we have an NaN, unordered
            switch (cmpTree->gtOper)
            {
                case GT_LT:
                case GT_GT:
                    jmpKind[0] = EJ_jb;
                    jmpKind[1] = EJ_NONE;
                    break;

                case GT_LE:
                case GT_GE:
                    jmpKind[0] = EJ_jbe;
                    jmpKind[1] = EJ_NONE;
                    break;

                case GT_NE:
                    jmpKind[0] = EJ_jpe;
                    jmpKind[1] = EJ_jne;
                    break;

                case GT_EQ:
                    jmpKind[0] = EJ_je;
                    jmpKind[1] = EJ_NONE;
                    break;

                default:
                    unreached();
            }
        }
        else // ((cmpTree->gtFlags & GTF_RELOP_NAN_UN) == 0)
        {
            // Do not branch if we have an NaN, unordered
            switch (cmpTree->gtOper)
            {
                case GT_LT:
                case GT_GT:
                    jmpKind[0] = EJ_ja;
                    jmpKind[1] = EJ_NONE;
                    break;

                case GT_LE:
                case GT_GE:
                    jmpKind[0] = EJ_jae;
                    jmpKind[1] = EJ_NONE;
                    break;

                case GT_NE:
                    jmpKind[0] = EJ_jne;
                    jmpKind[1] = EJ_NONE;
                    break;

                case GT_EQ:
                    jmpKind[0]        = EJ_jpe;
                    jmpKind[1]        = EJ_je;
                    jmpToTrueLabel[0] = false;
                    break;

                default:
                    unreached();
            }
        }
    }
}

#if !defined(_TARGET_64BIT_)
//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genJumpKindsForTreeLongHi: Generate the jump types for compare
// operators of the high parts of a compare with long type operands
// on x86 for the case where rel-op result needs to be materialized into a
// register.
//
// Arguments:
//    cmpTree - The GT_CMP node
//    jmpKind - Return array of jump kinds
//    jmpToTrueLabel - Return array of if the jump is going to true label
//
// Return Value:
//    None.
//
void CodeGen::genJumpKindsForTreeLongHi(GenTreePtr cmpTree, emitJumpKind jmpKind[2])
{
    assert(cmpTree->OperIsCompare());
    CompareKind compareKind = ((cmpTree->gtFlags & GTF_UNSIGNED) != 0) ? CK_UNSIGNED : CK_SIGNED;

    switch (cmpTree->gtOper)
    {
        case GT_LT:
        case GT_LE:
            if (compareKind == CK_SIGNED)
            {
                jmpKind[0] = EJ_jl;
                jmpKind[1] = EJ_jg;
            }
            else
            {
                jmpKind[0] = EJ_jb;
                jmpKind[1] = EJ_ja;
            }
            break;

        case GT_GT:
        case GT_GE:
            if (compareKind == CK_SIGNED)
            {
                jmpKind[0] = EJ_jg;
                jmpKind[1] = EJ_jl;
            }
            else
            {
                jmpKind[0] = EJ_ja;
                jmpKind[1] = EJ_jb;
            }
            break;

        case GT_EQ:
            // GT_EQ will not jump to the true label if the hi parts are equal
            jmpKind[0] = EJ_NONE;
            jmpKind[1] = EJ_jne;
            break;

        case GT_NE:
            // GT_NE will always jump to the true label if the high parts are not equal
            jmpKind[0] = EJ_jne;
            jmpKind[1] = EJ_NONE;
            break;

        default:
            unreached();
    }
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genCompareLong: Generate code for comparing two longs on x86 when the result of the compare
// is manifested in a register.
//
// Arguments:
//    treeNode - the compare tree
//
// Return Value:
//    None.
// Comments:
// For long compares, we need to compare the high parts of operands first, then the low parts.
// If the high compare is false, we do not need to compare the low parts. For less than and
// greater than, if the high compare is true, we can assume the entire compare is true. For
// compares that are realized in a register, we will generate:
//
//    Opcode            x86 equivalent          Comment
//    ------            --------------          -------
//    GT_EQ             cmp hiOp1,hiOp2         If any part is not equal, the entire compare
//                      jne label               is false.
//                      cmp loOp1,loOp2
//                      label: sete
//
//    GT_NE             cmp hiOp1,hiOp2         If any part is not equal, the entire compare
//                      jne label               is true.
//                      cmp loOp1,loOp2
//                      label: setne
//
//    GT_LT; unsigned   cmp hiOp1,hiOp2         If hiOp1 is not equal to hiOp2, the flags are set
//                      jne label               correctly and we do not need to check lo. Otherwise,
//                      cmp loOp1,loOp2         we need to compare the lo halves
//                      label: setb
//
//    GT_LE; unsigned   cmp hiOp1,hiOp2         If hiOp1 is not equal to hiOp2, the flags are set
//                      jne label               correctly and we do not need to check lo. Otherwise,
//                      cmp loOp1,loOp2         we need to compare the lo halves
//                      label: setbe
//
//    GT_GT; unsigned   cmp hiOp1,hiOp2         If hiOp1 is not equal to hiOp2, the flags are set
//                      jne label               correctly and we do not need to check lo. Otherwise,
//                      cmp loOp1,loOp2         we need to compare the lo halves
//                      label: seta
//
//    GT_GE; unsigned   cmp hiOp1,hiOp2         If hiOp1 is not equal to hiOp2, the flags are set
//                      jne label               correctly and we do not need to check lo. Otherwise,
//                      cmp loOp1,loOp2         we need to compare the lo halves
//                      label: setae
//
// For signed long comparisons, we need additional labels, as we need to use signed conditions on the
// "set" instruction:
//
//    GT_LT; signed     cmp hiOp1,hiOp2         If hiOp1 is not equal to hiOp2, the flags are set
//                      jne labelHi             correctly and we do not need to check lo. Otherwise,
//                      cmp loOp1,loOp2         we need to compare the lo halves
//                      setb                    Unsigned set for lo compare
//                      jmp labelFinal
//                      labelHi: setl           Signed set for high compare
//                      labelFinal:
//
//    GT_LE; signed     cmp hiOp1,hiOp2         If hiOp1 is not equal to hiOp2, the flags are set
//                      jne labelHi             correctly and we do not need to check lo. Otherwise,
//                      cmp loOp1,loOp2         we need to compare the lo halves
//                      setbe                   Unsigend set for lo compare
//                      jmp labelFinal
//                      labelHi: setle          Signed set for hi compare
//                      labelFinal:
//
//    GT_GT; signed     cmp hiOp1,hiOp2         If hiOp1 is not equal to hiOp2, the flags are set
//                      jne labelHi             correctly and we do not need to check lo. Otherwise,
//                      cmp loOp1,loOp2         we need to compare the lo halves
//                      seta                    Unsigned set for lo compare
//                      jmp labelFinal
//                      labelHi: setg           Signed set for high compare
//                      labelFinal
//
//    GT_GE; signed     cmp hiOp1,hiOp2         If hiOp1 is not equal to hiOp2, the flags are set
//                      jne labelHi             correctly and we do not need to check lo. Otherwise,
//                      cmp loOp1,loOp2         we need to compare the lo halves
//                      setae                   Unsigned set for lo compare
//                      jmp labelFinal
//                      labelHi: setge          Signed set for hi compare
//                      labelFinal:
//
// TODO-X86-CQ: Check if hi or lo parts of op2 are 0 and change the compare to a test.
void CodeGen::genCompareLong(GenTreePtr treeNode)
{
    assert(treeNode->OperIsCompare());

    GenTreeOp* tree = treeNode->AsOp();
    GenTreePtr op1  = tree->gtOp1;
    GenTreePtr op2  = tree->gtOp2;

    assert(varTypeIsLong(op1->TypeGet()));
    assert(varTypeIsLong(op2->TypeGet()));

    regNumber targetReg = treeNode->gtRegNum;

    genConsumeOperands(tree);

    assert(targetReg != REG_NA);

    GenTreePtr loOp1 = op1->gtGetOp1();
    GenTreePtr hiOp1 = op1->gtGetOp2();
    GenTreePtr loOp2 = op2->gtGetOp1();
    GenTreePtr hiOp2 = op2->gtGetOp2();

    // Create compare for the high parts
    instruction ins     = INS_cmp;
    var_types   cmpType = TYP_INT;
    emitAttr    cmpAttr = emitTypeSize(cmpType);

    // Emit the compare instruction
    getEmitter()->emitInsBinary(ins, cmpAttr, hiOp1, hiOp2);

    // Generate the first jump for the high compare
    CompareKind compareKind = ((tree->gtFlags & GTF_UNSIGNED) != 0) ? CK_UNSIGNED : CK_SIGNED;

    BasicBlock* labelHi    = genCreateTempLabel();
    BasicBlock* labelFinal = genCreateTempLabel();

    if (compareKind == CK_SIGNED && (tree->gtOper != GT_NE && tree->gtOper != GT_EQ))
    {
        // If we are doing a signed comparison, we need to do a signed set if the high compare is true,
        // but an unsigned set if we fall through to the low compare. If we have a GT_NE or GT_EQ, we do not
        // need to worry about the sign of the comparison, so we can use the simplified case.

        // We only have to check for equality for the hi comparison. If they are not equal, then the set will
        // do the right thing. If they are equal, we have to check the lo halves.
        inst_JMP(EJ_jne, labelHi);

        // Emit the comparison. Perform the set for the lo. Jump to labelFinal
        getEmitter()->emitInsBinary(ins, cmpAttr, loOp1, loOp2);

        // The low set must be unsigned
        emitJumpKind jumpKindLo = genJumpKindForOper(tree->gtOper, CK_UNSIGNED);

        inst_SET(jumpKindLo, targetReg);
        // Set the higher bytes to 0
        inst_RV_RV(ins_Move_Extend(TYP_UBYTE, true), targetReg, targetReg, TYP_UBYTE, emitTypeSize(TYP_UBYTE));
        genProduceReg(tree);

        inst_JMP(EJ_jmp, labelFinal);

        // Define the label for hi jump target here. If we have jumped here, we want to set
        // the target register based on the jump kind of the actual compare type.

        genDefineTempLabel(labelHi);
        inst_SET(genJumpKindForOper(tree->gtOper, compareKind), targetReg);

        // Set the higher bytes to 0
        inst_RV_RV(ins_Move_Extend(TYP_UBYTE, true), targetReg, targetReg, TYP_UBYTE, emitTypeSize(TYP_UBYTE));
        genProduceReg(tree);

        genDefineTempLabel(labelFinal);
    }
    else
    {
        // If the compare is unsigned, or if the sign doesn't change the set instruction, we can use
        // the same set logic for both the hi and lo compare, so we don't need to jump to a high label,
        // we can just jump to the set that the lo compare will use.

        // We only have to check for equality for the hi comparison. If they are not equal, then the set will
        // do the right thing. If they are equal, we have to check the lo halves.
        inst_JMP(EJ_jne, labelFinal);

        // Emit the comparison
        getEmitter()->emitInsBinary(ins, cmpAttr, loOp1, loOp2);

        // Define the label for hi jump target here. If we have jumped here, we want to set
        // the target register based on the jump kind of the lower half (the actual compare
        // type). If we have fallen through, then we are doing a normal int compare for the
        // lower parts

        genDefineTempLabel(labelFinal);

        // The low set must be unsigned
        emitJumpKind jumpKindLo = genJumpKindForOper(tree->gtOper, CK_UNSIGNED);

        inst_SET(jumpKindLo, targetReg);
        // Set the higher bytes to 0
        inst_RV_RV(ins_Move_Extend(TYP_UBYTE, true), targetReg, targetReg, TYP_UBYTE, emitTypeSize(TYP_UBYTE));
        genProduceReg(tree);
    }
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genJTrueLong: Generate code for comparing two longs on x86 for the case where the result
// is not manifested in a register.
//
// Arguments:
//    treeNode - the compare tree
//
// Return Value:
//    None.
// Comments:
// For long compares, we need to compare the high parts of operands first, then the low parts.
// We only have to do the low compare if the high parts of the operands are equal.
//
// In the case where the result of a rel-op is not realized in a register, we generate:
//
//    Opcode            x86 equivalent          Comment
//    ------            --------------          -------
//
//    GT_LT; unsigned   cmp hiOp1,hiOp2
//                      jb  trueLabel
//                      ja  falseLabel
//                      cmp loOp1,loOp2
//                      jb  trueLabel
//                      falseLabel:
//
//    GT_LE; unsigned   cmp hiOp1,hiOp2
//                      jb  trueLabel
//                      ja  falseLabel
//                      cmp loOp1,loOp2
//                      jbe trueLabel
//                      falseLabel:
//
//    GT_GT; unsigned   cmp hiOp1,hiOp2
//                      ja  trueLabel
//                      jb  falseLabel
//                      cmp loOp1,loOp2
//                      ja  trueLabel
//                      falseLabel:
//
//    GT_GE; unsigned   cmp hiOp1,hiOp2
//                      ja  trueLabel
//                      jb  falseLabel
//                      cmp loOp1,loOp2
//                      jae trueLabel
//                      falseLabel:
//
//    GT_LT; signed     cmp hiOp1,hiOp2
//                      jl  trueLabel
//                      jg  falseLabel
//                      cmp loOp1,loOp2
//                      jb  trueLabel
//                      falseLabel:
//
//    GT_LE; signed     cmp hiOp1,hiOp2
//                      jl  trueLabel
//                      jg  falseLabel
//                      cmp loOp1,loOp2
//                      jbe trueLabel
//                      falseLabel:
//
//    GT_GT; signed     cmp hiOp1,hiOp2
//                      jg  trueLabel
//                      jl  falseLabel
//                      cmp loOp1,loOp2
//                      ja  trueLabel
//                      falseLabel:
//
//    GT_GE; signed     cmp hiOp1,hiOp2
//                      jg  trueLabel
//                      jl  falseLabel
//                      cmp loOp1,loOp2
//                      jae trueLabel
//                      falseLabel:
//
//    GT_EQ;            cmp hiOp1,hiOp2
//                      jne falseLabel
//                      cmp loOp1,loOp2
//                      je  trueLabel
//                      falseLabel:
//
//    GT_NE;            cmp hiOp1,hiOp2
//                      jne labelTrue
//                      cmp loOp1,loOp2
//                      jne trueLabel
//                      falseLabel:
//
// TODO-X86-CQ: Check if hi or lo parts of op2 are 0 and change the compare to a test.
void CodeGen::genJTrueLong(GenTreePtr treeNode)
{
    assert(treeNode->OperIsCompare());

    GenTreeOp* tree = treeNode->AsOp();
    GenTreePtr op1  = tree->gtOp1;
    GenTreePtr op2  = tree->gtOp2;

    assert(varTypeIsLong(op1->TypeGet()));
    assert(varTypeIsLong(op2->TypeGet()));

    regNumber targetReg = treeNode->gtRegNum;

    assert(targetReg == REG_NA);

    GenTreePtr loOp1 = op1->gtGetOp1();
    GenTreePtr hiOp1 = op1->gtGetOp2();
    GenTreePtr loOp2 = op2->gtGetOp1();
    GenTreePtr hiOp2 = op2->gtGetOp2();

    // Emit the compare instruction
    getEmitter()->emitInsBinary(INS_cmp, EA_4BYTE, hiOp1, hiOp2);

    // Generate the first jump for the high compare
    CompareKind compareKind = ((tree->gtFlags & GTF_UNSIGNED) != 0) ? CK_UNSIGNED : CK_SIGNED;

    // TODO-X86-CQ: If the next block is a BBJ_ALWAYS, we can set falseLabel = compiler->compCurBB->bbNext->bbJumpDest.
    BasicBlock* falseLabel = genCreateTempLabel();

    emitJumpKind jumpKindHi[2];

    // Generate the jumps for the high compare
    genJumpKindsForTreeLongHi(tree, jumpKindHi);

    BasicBlock* trueLabel = compiler->compCurBB->bbJumpDest;

    if (jumpKindHi[0] != EJ_NONE)
    {
        inst_JMP(jumpKindHi[0], trueLabel);
    }

    if (jumpKindHi[1] != EJ_NONE)
    {
        inst_JMP(jumpKindHi[1], falseLabel);
    }

    // The low jump must be unsigned
    emitJumpKind jumpKindLo = genJumpKindForOper(tree->gtOper, CK_UNSIGNED);

    // Emit the comparison and the jump to the trueLabel
    getEmitter()->emitInsBinary(INS_cmp, EA_4BYTE, loOp1, loOp2);

    inst_JMP(jumpKindLo, trueLabel);

    // Generate falseLabel, which is the false path. We will jump here if the high compare is false
    // or fall through if the low compare is false.
    genDefineTempLabel(falseLabel);
}
#endif //! defined(_TARGET_64BIT_)

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genCompareFloat: Generate code for comparing two floating point values
//
// Arguments:
//    treeNode - the compare tree
//
// Return Value:
//    None.
// Comments:
// SSE2 instruction ucomis[s|d] is performs unordered comparison and
// updates rFLAGS register as follows.
//        Result of compare         ZF  PF CF
//        -----------------        ------------
//        Unordered                 1   1   1     <-- this result implies one of operands of compare is a NAN.
//        Greater                   0   0   0
//        Less Than                 0   0   1
//        Equal                     1   0   0
//
// From the above table the following equalities follow. As per ECMA spec *.UN opcodes perform
// unordered comparison of floating point values.  That is *.UN comparisons result in true when
// one of the operands is a NaN whereas ordered comparisons results in false.
//
//    Opcode          Amd64 equivalent         Comment
//    ------          -----------------        --------
//    BLT.UN(a,b)      ucomis[s|d] a, b        Jb branches if CF=1, which means either a<b or unordered from the above
//                     jb                      table
//
//    BLT(a,b)         ucomis[s|d] b, a        Ja branches if CF=0 and ZF=0, which means b>a that in turn implies a<b
//                     ja
//
//    BGT.UN(a,b)      ucomis[s|d] b, a        branch if b<a or unordered ==> branch if a>b or unordered
//                     jb
//
//    BGT(a, b)        ucomis[s|d] a, b        branch if a>b
//                     ja
//
//    BLE.UN(a,b)      ucomis[s|d] a, b        jbe branches if CF=1 or ZF=1, which implies a<=b or unordered
//                     jbe
//
//    BLE(a,b)         ucomis[s|d] b, a        jae branches if CF=0, which mean b>=a or a<=b
//                     jae
//
//    BGE.UN(a,b)      ucomis[s|d] b, a        branch if b<=a or unordered ==> branch if a>=b or unordered
//                     jbe
//
//    BGE(a,b)         ucomis[s|d] a, b        branch if a>=b
//                     jae
//
//    BEQ.UN(a,b)      ucomis[s|d] a, b        branch if a==b or unordered.  There is no BEQ.UN opcode in ECMA spec.
//                     je                      This case is given for completeness, in case if JIT generates such
//                                             a gentree internally.
//
//    BEQ(a,b)         ucomis[s|d] a, b        From the above table, PF=0 and ZF=1 corresponds to a==b.
//                     jpe L1
//                     je <true label>
//                 L1:
//
//    BNE(a,b)         ucomis[s|d] a, b        branch if a!=b.  There is no BNE opcode in ECMA spec. This case is
//                     jne                     given for completeness, in case if JIT generates such a gentree
//                                             internally.
//
//    BNE.UN(a,b)      ucomis[s|d] a, b        From the above table, PF=1 or ZF=0 implies unordered or a!=b
//                     jpe <true label>
//                     jne <true label>
//
// As we can see from the above equalities that the operands of a compare operator need to be
// reveresed in case of BLT/CLT, BGT.UN/CGT.UN, BLE/CLE, BGE.UN/CGE.UN.
void CodeGen::genCompareFloat(GenTreePtr treeNode)
{
    assert(treeNode->OperIsCompare());

    GenTreeOp* tree    = treeNode->AsOp();
    GenTreePtr op1     = tree->gtOp1;
    GenTreePtr op2     = tree->gtOp2;
    var_types  op1Type = op1->TypeGet();
    var_types  op2Type = op2->TypeGet();

    genConsumeOperands(tree);

    assert(varTypeIsFloating(op1Type));
    assert(op1Type == op2Type);

    regNumber   targetReg = treeNode->gtRegNum;
    instruction ins;
    emitAttr    cmpAttr;

    bool reverseOps;
    if ((tree->gtFlags & GTF_RELOP_NAN_UN) != 0)
    {
        // Unordered comparison case
        reverseOps = (tree->gtOper == GT_GT || tree->gtOper == GT_GE);
    }
    else
    {
        reverseOps = (tree->gtOper == GT_LT || tree->gtOper == GT_LE);
    }

    if (reverseOps)
    {
        GenTreePtr tmp = op1;
        op1            = op2;
        op2            = tmp;
    }

    ins     = ins_FloatCompare(op1Type);
    cmpAttr = emitTypeSize(op1Type);

    getEmitter()->emitInsBinary(ins, cmpAttr, op1, op2);

    // Are we evaluating this into a register?
    if (targetReg != REG_NA)
    {
        genSetRegToCond(targetReg, tree);
        genProduceReg(tree);
    }
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genCompareInt: Generate code for comparing ints or, on amd64, longs.
//
// Arguments:
//    treeNode - the compare tree
//
// Return Value:
//    None.
void CodeGen::genCompareInt(GenTreePtr treeNode)
{
    assert(treeNode->OperIsCompare());

    GenTreeOp* tree    = treeNode->AsOp();
    GenTreePtr op1     = tree->gtOp1;
    GenTreePtr op2     = tree->gtOp2;
    var_types  op1Type = op1->TypeGet();
    var_types  op2Type = op2->TypeGet();

    genConsumeOperands(tree);

    instruction ins;
    emitAttr    cmpAttr;

    regNumber targetReg = treeNode->gtRegNum;
    assert(!op1->isContainedIntOrIImmed()); // We no longer support swapping op1 and op2 to generate cmp reg, imm
    assert(!varTypeIsFloating(op2Type));

#ifdef _TARGET_X86_
    assert(!varTypeIsLong(op1Type) && !varTypeIsLong(op2Type));
#endif // _TARGET_X86_

    // By default we use an int32 sized cmp instruction
    //
    ins               = INS_cmp;
    var_types cmpType = TYP_INT;

    // In the if/then/else statement below we may change the
    // 'cmpType' and/or 'ins' to generate a smaller instruction

    // Are we comparing two values that are the same size?
    //
    if (genTypeSize(op1Type) == genTypeSize(op2Type))
    {
        if (op1Type == op2Type)
        {
            // If both types are exactly the same we can use that type
            cmpType = op1Type;
        }
        else if (genTypeSize(op1Type) == 8)
        {
            // If we have two different int64 types we need to use a long compare
            cmpType = TYP_LONG;
        }

        cmpAttr = emitTypeSize(cmpType);
    }
    else // Here we know that (op1Type != op2Type)
    {
        // Do we have a short compare against a constant in op2?
        //
        // We checked for this case in LowerCmp() and if we can perform a small
        // compare immediate we labeled this compare with a GTF_RELOP_SMALL
        // and for unsigned small non-equality compares the GTF_UNSIGNED flag.
        //
        if (op2->isContainedIntOrIImmed() && ((tree->gtFlags & GTF_RELOP_SMALL) != 0))
        {
            assert(varTypeIsSmall(op1Type));
            cmpType = op1Type;
        }
#ifdef _TARGET_AMD64_
        else // compare two different sized operands
        {
            // For this case we don't want any memory operands, only registers or immediates
            //
            assert(!op1->isContainedMemoryOp());
            assert(!op2->isContainedMemoryOp());

            // Check for the case where one operand is an int64 type
            // Lower should have placed 32-bit operand in a register
            // for signed comparisons we will sign extend the 32-bit value in place.
            //
            bool op1Is64Bit = (genTypeSize(op1Type) == 8);
            bool op2Is64Bit = (genTypeSize(op2Type) == 8);
            if (op1Is64Bit)
            {
                cmpType = TYP_LONG;
                if (!(tree->gtFlags & GTF_UNSIGNED) && !op2Is64Bit)
                {
                    assert(op2->gtRegNum != REG_NA);
                    inst_RV_RV(INS_movsxd, op2->gtRegNum, op2->gtRegNum, op2Type);
                }
            }
            else if (op2Is64Bit)
            {
                cmpType = TYP_LONG;
                if (!(tree->gtFlags & GTF_UNSIGNED) && !op1Is64Bit)
                {
                    assert(op1->gtRegNum != REG_NA);
                }
            }
        }
#endif // _TARGET_AMD64_

        cmpAttr = emitTypeSize(cmpType);
    }

    // See if we can generate a "test" instruction instead of a "cmp".
    // For this to generate the correct conditional branch we must have
    // a compare against zero.
    //
    if (op2->IsIntegralConst(0))
    {
        if (op1->isContained())
        {
            // op1 can be a contained memory op
            // or the special contained GT_AND that we created in Lowering::LowerCmp()
            //
            if ((op1->OperGet() == GT_AND))
            {
                noway_assert(op1->gtOp.gtOp2->isContainedIntOrIImmed());

                ins = INS_test;        // we will generate "test andOp1, andOp2CnsVal"
                op2 = op1->gtOp.gtOp2; // must assign op2 before we overwrite op1
                op1 = op1->gtOp.gtOp1; // overwrite op1

                if (op1->isContainedMemoryOp())
                {
                    // use the size andOp1 if it is a contained memoryop.
                    cmpAttr = emitTypeSize(op1->TypeGet());
                }
                // fallthrough to emit->emitInsBinary(ins, cmpAttr, op1, op2);
            }
        }
        else // op1 is not contained thus it must be in a register
        {
            ins = INS_test;
            op2 = op1; // we will generate "test reg1,reg1"
            // fallthrough to emit->emitInsBinary(ins, cmpAttr, op1, op2);
        }
    }

    getEmitter()->emitInsBinary(ins, cmpAttr, op1, op2);

    // Are we evaluating this into a register?
    if (targetReg != REG_NA)
    {
        genSetRegToCond(targetReg, tree);
        genProduceReg(tree);
    }
}

//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genSetRegToCond:  Set a register 'dstReg' to the appropriate one or zero value
//                   corresponding to a binary Relational operator result.
//
// Arguments:
//   dstReg          - The target register to set to 1 or 0
//   tree            - The GenTree Relop node that was used to set the Condition codes
//
// Return Value:     none
//
// Notes:
//    A full 64-bit value of either 1 or 0 is setup in the 'dstReg'
//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

void CodeGen::genSetRegToCond(regNumber dstReg, GenTreePtr tree)
{
    noway_assert((genRegMask(dstReg) & RBM_BYTE_REGS) != 0);

    emitJumpKind jumpKind[2];
    bool         branchToTrueLabel[2];
    genJumpKindsForTree(tree, jumpKind, branchToTrueLabel);

    if (jumpKind[1] == EJ_NONE)
    {
        // Set (lower byte of) reg according to the flags
        inst_SET(jumpKind[0], dstReg);
    }
    else
    {
#ifdef DEBUG
        // jmpKind[1] != EJ_NONE implies BEQ and BEN.UN of floating point values.
        // These are represented by two conditions.
        if (tree->gtOper == GT_EQ)
        {
            // This must be an ordered comparison.
            assert((tree->gtFlags & GTF_RELOP_NAN_UN) == 0);
        }
        else
        {
            // This must be BNE.UN
            assert((tree->gtOper == GT_NE) && ((tree->gtFlags & GTF_RELOP_NAN_UN) != 0));
        }
#endif

        // Here is the sample code generated in each case:
        // BEQ ==  cmp, jpe <false label>, je <true label>
        // That is, to materialize comparison reg needs to be set if PF=0 and ZF=1
        //      setnp reg  // if (PF==0) reg = 1 else reg = 0
        //      jpe L1     // Jmp if PF==1
        //      sete reg
        //  L1:
        //
        // BNE.UN == cmp, jpe <true label>, jne <true label>
        // That is, to materialize the comparison reg needs to be set if either PF=1 or ZF=0;
        //     setp reg
        //     jpe L1
        //     setne reg
        //  L1:

        // reverse the jmpkind condition before setting dstReg if it is to false label.
        inst_SET(branchToTrueLabel[0] ? jumpKind[0] : emitter::emitReverseJumpKind(jumpKind[0]), dstReg);

        BasicBlock* label = genCreateTempLabel();
        inst_JMP(jumpKind[0], label);

        // second branch is always to true label
        assert(branchToTrueLabel[1]);
        inst_SET(jumpKind[1], dstReg);
        genDefineTempLabel(label);
    }

    var_types treeType = tree->TypeGet();
    if (treeType == TYP_INT || treeType == TYP_LONG)
    {
        // Set the higher bytes to 0
        inst_RV_RV(ins_Move_Extend(TYP_UBYTE, true), dstReg, dstReg, TYP_UBYTE, emitTypeSize(TYP_UBYTE));
    }
    else
    {
        noway_assert(treeType == TYP_BYTE);
    }
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genIntToIntCast: Generate code for an integer cast
//    This method handles integer overflow checking casts
//    as well as ordinary integer casts.
//
// Arguments:
//    treeNode - The GT_CAST node
//
// Return Value:
//    None.
//
// Assumptions:
//    The treeNode is not a contained node and must have an assigned register.
//    For a signed convert from byte, the source must be in a byte-addressable register.
//    Neither the source nor target type can be a floating point type.
//
// TODO-XArch-CQ: Allow castOp to be a contained node without an assigned register.
// TODO: refactor to use getCastDescription
//
void CodeGen::genIntToIntCast(GenTreePtr treeNode)
{
    assert(treeNode->OperGet() == GT_CAST);

    GenTreePtr castOp        = treeNode->gtCast.CastOp();
    regNumber  targetReg     = treeNode->gtRegNum;
    regNumber  sourceReg     = castOp->gtRegNum;
    var_types  dstType       = treeNode->CastToType();
    bool       isUnsignedDst = varTypeIsUnsigned(dstType);
    var_types  srcType       = genActualType(castOp->TypeGet());
    bool       isUnsignedSrc = varTypeIsUnsigned(srcType);

    // if necessary, force the srcType to unsigned when the GT_UNSIGNED flag is set
    if (!isUnsignedSrc && (treeNode->gtFlags & GTF_UNSIGNED) != 0)
    {
        srcType       = genUnsignedType(srcType);
        isUnsignedSrc = true;
    }

    bool requiresOverflowCheck = false;
    bool needAndAfter          = false;

    assert(genIsValidIntReg(targetReg));
    assert(genIsValidIntReg(sourceReg));

    instruction ins  = INS_invalid;
    emitAttr    size = EA_UNKNOWN;

    if (genTypeSize(srcType) < genTypeSize(dstType))
    {
        // Widening cast

        // Is this an Overflow checking cast?
        // We only need to handle one case, as the other casts can never overflow.
        //   cast from TYP_INT to TYP_ULONG
        //
        if (treeNode->gtOverflow() && (srcType == TYP_INT) && (dstType == TYP_ULONG))
        {
            requiresOverflowCheck = true;
            size                  = EA_ATTR(genTypeSize(srcType));
            ins                   = INS_mov;
        }
        else
        {
            // we need the source size
            size = EA_ATTR(genTypeSize(srcType));
            noway_assert(size < EA_PTRSIZE);

            ins = ins_Move_Extend(srcType, castOp->InReg());

            /*
                Special case: ins_Move_Extend assumes the destination type is no bigger
                than TYP_INT.  movsx and movzx can already extend all the way to
                64-bit, and a regular 32-bit mov clears the high 32 bits (like the non-existant movzxd),
                but for a sign extension from TYP_INT to TYP_LONG, we need to use movsxd opcode.
            */
            if (!isUnsignedSrc && !isUnsignedDst && (size == EA_4BYTE) && (genTypeSize(dstType) > EA_4BYTE))
            {
#ifdef _TARGET_X86_
                NYI_X86("Cast to 64 bit for x86/RyuJIT");
#else  // !_TARGET_X86_
                ins = INS_movsxd;
#endif // !_TARGET_X86_
            }

            /*
                Special case: for a cast of byte to char we first
                have to expand the byte (w/ sign extension), then
                mask off the high bits.
                Use 'movsx' followed by 'and'
            */
            if (!isUnsignedSrc && isUnsignedDst && (genTypeSize(dstType) < EA_4BYTE))
            {
                noway_assert(genTypeSize(dstType) == EA_2BYTE && size == EA_1BYTE);
                needAndAfter = true;
            }
        }
    }
    else
    {
        // Narrowing cast, or sign-changing cast
        noway_assert(genTypeSize(srcType) >= genTypeSize(dstType));

        // Is this an Overflow checking cast?
        if (treeNode->gtOverflow())
        {
            requiresOverflowCheck = true;
            size                  = EA_ATTR(genTypeSize(srcType));
            ins                   = INS_mov;
        }
        else
        {
            size = EA_ATTR(genTypeSize(dstType));
            ins  = ins_Move_Extend(dstType, castOp->InReg());
        }
    }

    noway_assert(ins != INS_invalid);

    genConsumeReg(castOp);

    if (requiresOverflowCheck)
    {
        ssize_t typeMin        = 0;
        ssize_t typeMax        = 0;
        ssize_t typeMask       = 0;
        bool    needScratchReg = false;
        bool    signCheckOnly  = false;

        /* Do we need to compare the value, or just check masks */

        switch (dstType)
        {
            case TYP_BYTE:
                typeMask = ssize_t((int)0xFFFFFF80);
                typeMin  = SCHAR_MIN;
                typeMax  = SCHAR_MAX;
                break;

            case TYP_UBYTE:
                typeMask = ssize_t((int)0xFFFFFF00L);
                break;

            case TYP_SHORT:
                typeMask = ssize_t((int)0xFFFF8000);
                typeMin  = SHRT_MIN;
                typeMax  = SHRT_MAX;
                break;

            case TYP_CHAR:
                typeMask = ssize_t((int)0xFFFF0000L);
                break;

            case TYP_INT:
                if (srcType == TYP_UINT)
                {
                    signCheckOnly = true;
                }
                else
                {
                    typeMask = 0xFFFFFFFF80000000LL;
                    typeMin  = INT_MIN;
                    typeMax  = INT_MAX;
                }
                break;

            case TYP_UINT:
                if (srcType == TYP_INT)
                {
                    signCheckOnly = true;
                }
                else
                {
                    needScratchReg = true;
                }
                break;

            case TYP_LONG:
                noway_assert(srcType == TYP_ULONG);
                signCheckOnly = true;
                break;

            case TYP_ULONG:
                noway_assert((srcType == TYP_LONG) || (srcType == TYP_INT));
                signCheckOnly = true;
                break;

            default:
                NO_WAY("Unknown type");
                return;
        }

        if (signCheckOnly)
        {
            // We only need to check for a negative value in sourceReg
            inst_RV_IV(INS_cmp, sourceReg, 0, size);
            genJumpToThrowHlpBlk(EJ_jl, SCK_OVERFLOW);
        }
        else
        {
            regNumber tmpReg = REG_NA;

            if (needScratchReg)
            {
                // We need an additional temp register
                // Make sure we have exactly one allocated.
                assert(treeNode->gtRsvdRegs != RBM_NONE);
                assert(genCountBits(treeNode->gtRsvdRegs) == 1);
                tmpReg = genRegNumFromMask(treeNode->gtRsvdRegs);
            }

            // When we are converting from unsigned or to unsigned, we
            // will only have to check for any bits set using 'typeMask'
            if (isUnsignedSrc || isUnsignedDst)
            {
                if (needScratchReg)
                {
                    inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, tmpReg, sourceReg, TYP_LONG); // Move the 64-bit value to a writeable temp reg
                    inst_RV_SH(INS_SHIFT_RIGHT_LOGICAL, size, tmpReg, 32); // Shift right by 32 bits
                    genJumpToThrowHlpBlk(EJ_jne, SCK_OVERFLOW);            // Thow if result shift is non-zero
                }
                else
                {
                    noway_assert(typeMask != 0);
                    inst_RV_IV(INS_TEST, sourceReg, typeMask, size);
                    genJumpToThrowHlpBlk(EJ_jne, SCK_OVERFLOW);
                }
            }
            else
            {
                // For a narrowing signed cast
                //
                // We must check the value is in a signed range.

                // Compare with the MAX

                noway_assert((typeMin != 0) && (typeMax != 0));

                inst_RV_IV(INS_cmp, sourceReg, typeMax, size);
                genJumpToThrowHlpBlk(EJ_jg, SCK_OVERFLOW);

                // Compare with the MIN

                inst_RV_IV(INS_cmp, sourceReg, typeMin, size);
                genJumpToThrowHlpBlk(EJ_jl, SCK_OVERFLOW);
            }
        }

        if (targetReg != sourceReg
#ifdef _TARGET_AMD64_
            // On amd64, we can hit this path for a same-register
            // 4-byte to 8-byte widening conversion, and need to
            // emit the instruction to set the high bits correctly.
            || (EA_ATTR(genTypeSize(dstType)) == EA_8BYTE && EA_ATTR(genTypeSize(srcType)) == EA_4BYTE)
#endif // _TARGET_AMD64_
                )
            inst_RV_RV(ins, targetReg, sourceReg, srcType, size);
    }
    else // non-overflow checking cast
    {
        noway_assert(size < EA_PTRSIZE || srcType == dstType);

        // We may have code transformations that result in casts where srcType is the same as dstType.
        // e.g. Bug 824281, in which a comma is split by the rationalizer, leaving an assignment of a
        // long constant to a long lclVar.
        if (srcType == dstType)
        {
            ins = INS_mov;
        }
        /* Is the value sitting in a non-byte-addressable register? */
        else if (castOp->InReg() && (size == EA_1BYTE) && !isByteReg(sourceReg))
        {
            if (isUnsignedDst)
            {
                // for unsigned values we can AND, so it need not be a byte register
                ins = INS_AND;
            }
            else
            {
                // Move the value into a byte register
                noway_assert(!"Signed byte convert from non-byte-addressable register");
            }

            /* Generate "mov targetReg, castOp->gtReg */
            if (targetReg != sourceReg)
            {
                inst_RV_RV(INS_mov, targetReg, sourceReg, srcType);
            }
        }

        if (ins == INS_AND)
        {
            noway_assert((needAndAfter == false) && isUnsignedDst);

            /* Generate "and reg, MASK */
            unsigned fillPattern;
            if (size == EA_1BYTE)
            {
                fillPattern = 0xff;
            }
            else if (size == EA_2BYTE)
            {
                fillPattern = 0xffff;
            }
            else
            {
                fillPattern = 0xffffffff;
            }

            inst_RV_IV(INS_AND, targetReg, fillPattern, EA_4BYTE);
        }
#ifdef _TARGET_AMD64_
        else if (ins == INS_movsxd)
        {
            noway_assert(!needAndAfter);
            inst_RV_RV(ins, targetReg, sourceReg, srcType, size);
        }
#endif // _TARGET_AMD64_
        else if (ins == INS_mov)
        {
            noway_assert(!needAndAfter);
            if (targetReg != sourceReg
#ifdef _TARGET_AMD64_
                // On amd64, 'mov' is the opcode used to zero-extend from
                // 4 bytes to 8 bytes.
                || (EA_ATTR(genTypeSize(dstType)) == EA_8BYTE && EA_ATTR(genTypeSize(srcType)) == EA_4BYTE)
#endif // _TARGET_AMD64_
                    )
            {
                inst_RV_RV(ins, targetReg, sourceReg, srcType, size);
            }
        }
        else
        {
            noway_assert(ins == INS_movsx || ins == INS_movzx);

            /* Generate "mov targetReg, castOp->gtReg */
            inst_RV_RV(ins, targetReg, sourceReg, srcType, size);

            /* Mask off high bits for cast from byte to char */
            if (needAndAfter)
            {
                noway_assert(genTypeSize(dstType) == 2 && ins == INS_movsx);
                inst_RV_IV(INS_AND, targetReg, 0xFFFF, EA_4BYTE);
            }
        }
    }

    genProduceReg(treeNode);
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genFloatToFloatCast: Generate code for a cast between float and double
//
// Arguments:
//    treeNode - The GT_CAST node
//
// Return Value:
//    None.
//
// Assumptions:
//    Cast is a non-overflow conversion.
//    The treeNode must have an assigned register.
//    The cast is between float and double or vice versa.
//
void CodeGen::genFloatToFloatCast(GenTreePtr treeNode)
{
    // float <--> double conversions are always non-overflow ones
    assert(treeNode->OperGet() == GT_CAST);
    assert(!treeNode->gtOverflow());

    regNumber targetReg = treeNode->gtRegNum;
    assert(genIsValidFloatReg(targetReg));

    GenTreePtr op1 = treeNode->gtOp.gtOp1;
#ifdef DEBUG
    // If not contained, must be a valid float reg.
    if (!op1->isContained())
    {
        assert(genIsValidFloatReg(op1->gtRegNum));
    }
#endif

    var_types dstType = treeNode->CastToType();
    var_types srcType = op1->TypeGet();
    assert(varTypeIsFloating(srcType) && varTypeIsFloating(dstType));

    genConsumeOperands(treeNode->AsOp());
    if (srcType == dstType && targetReg == op1->gtRegNum)
    {
        // source and destinations types are the same and also reside in the same register.
        // we just need to consume and produce the reg in this case.
        ;
    }
    else
    {
        instruction ins = ins_FloatConv(dstType, srcType);
        getEmitter()->emitInsBinary(ins, emitTypeSize(dstType), treeNode, op1);
    }

    genProduceReg(treeNode);
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genIntToFloatCast: Generate code to cast an int/long to float/double
//
// Arguments:
//    treeNode - The GT_CAST node
//
// Return Value:
//    None.
//
// Assumptions:
//    Cast is a non-overflow conversion.
//    The treeNode must have an assigned register.
//    SrcType= int32/uint32/int64/uint64 and DstType=float/double.
//
void CodeGen::genIntToFloatCast(GenTreePtr treeNode)
{
    // int type --> float/double conversions are always non-overflow ones
    assert(treeNode->OperGet() == GT_CAST);
    assert(!treeNode->gtOverflow());

    regNumber targetReg = treeNode->gtRegNum;
    assert(genIsValidFloatReg(targetReg));

    GenTreePtr op1 = treeNode->gtOp.gtOp1;
#ifdef DEBUG
    if (!op1->isContained())
    {
        assert(genIsValidIntReg(op1->gtRegNum));
    }
#endif

    var_types dstType = treeNode->CastToType();
    var_types srcType = op1->TypeGet();
    assert(!varTypeIsFloating(srcType) && varTypeIsFloating(dstType));

#if !defined(_TARGET_64BIT_)
    NYI_IF(varTypeIsLong(srcType), "Conversion from long to float");
#endif // !defined(_TARGET_64BIT_)

    // Since xarch emitter doesn't handle reporting gc-info correctly while casting away gc-ness we
    // ensure srcType of a cast is non gc-type.  Codegen should never see BYREF as source type except
    // for GT_LCL_VAR_ADDR and GT_LCL_FLD_ADDR that represent stack addresses and can be considered
    // as TYP_I_IMPL. In all other cases where src operand is a gc-type and not known to be on stack,
    // Front-end (see fgMorphCast()) ensures this by assigning gc-type local to a non gc-type
    // temp and using temp as operand of cast operation.
    if (srcType == TYP_BYREF)
    {
        noway_assert(op1->OperGet() == GT_LCL_VAR_ADDR || op1->OperGet() == GT_LCL_FLD_ADDR);
        srcType = TYP_I_IMPL;
    }

    // force the srcType to unsigned if GT_UNSIGNED flag is set
    if (treeNode->gtFlags & GTF_UNSIGNED)
    {
        srcType = genUnsignedType(srcType);
    }

    noway_assert(!varTypeIsGC(srcType));

    // We should never be seeing srcType whose size is not sizeof(int) nor sizeof(long).
    // For conversions from byte/sbyte/int16/uint16 to float/double, we would expect
    // either the front-end or lowering phase to have generated two levels of cast.
    // The first one is for widening smaller int type to int32 and the second one is
    // to the float/double.
    emitAttr srcSize = EA_ATTR(genTypeSize(srcType));
    noway_assert((srcSize == EA_ATTR(genTypeSize(TYP_INT))) || (srcSize == EA_ATTR(genTypeSize(TYP_LONG))));

    // Also we don't expect to see uint32 -> float/double and uint64 -> float conversions
    // here since they should have been lowered apropriately.
    noway_assert(srcType != TYP_UINT);
    noway_assert((srcType != TYP_ULONG) || (dstType != TYP_FLOAT));

    // To convert int to a float/double, cvtsi2ss/sd SSE2 instruction is used
    // which does a partial write to lower 4/8 bytes of xmm register keeping the other
    // upper bytes unmodified.  If "cvtsi2ss/sd xmmReg, r32/r64" occurs inside a loop,
    // the partial write could introduce a false dependency and could cause a stall
    // if there are further uses of xmmReg. We have such a case occuring with a
    // customer reported version of SpectralNorm benchmark, resulting in 2x perf
    // regression.  To avoid false dependency, we emit "xorps xmmReg, xmmReg" before
    // cvtsi2ss/sd instruction.

    genConsumeOperands(treeNode->AsOp());
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R(INS_xorps, EA_4BYTE, treeNode->gtRegNum, treeNode->gtRegNum);

    // Note that here we need to specify srcType that will determine
    // the size of source reg/mem operand and rex.w prefix.
    instruction ins = ins_FloatConv(dstType, TYP_INT);
    getEmitter()->emitInsBinary(ins, emitTypeSize(srcType), treeNode, op1);

    // Handle the case of srcType = TYP_ULONG. SSE2 conversion instruction
    // will interpret ULONG value as LONG.  Hence we need to adjust the
    // result if sign-bit of srcType is set.
    if (srcType == TYP_ULONG)
    {
        // The instruction sequence below is less accurate than what clang
        // and gcc generate. However, we keep the current sequence for backward compatiblity.
        // If we change the instructions below, FloatingPointUtils::convertUInt64ToDobule
        // should be also updated for consistent conversion result.
        assert(dstType == TYP_DOUBLE);
        assert(!op1->isContained());

        // Set the flags without modifying op1.
        // test op1Reg, op1Reg
        inst_RV_RV(INS_test, op1->gtRegNum, op1->gtRegNum, srcType);

        // No need to adjust result if op1 >= 0 i.e. positive
        // Jge label
        BasicBlock* label = genCreateTempLabel();
        inst_JMP(EJ_jge, label);

        // Adjust the result
        // result = result + 0x43f00000 00000000
        // addsd resultReg,  0x43f00000 00000000
        GenTreePtr* cns = &u8ToDblBitmask;
        if (*cns == nullptr)
        {
            double d;
            static_assert_no_msg(sizeof(double) == sizeof(__int64));
            *((__int64*)&d) = 0x43f0000000000000LL;

            *cns = genMakeConst(&d, dstType, treeNode, true);
        }
        inst_RV_TT(INS_addsd, treeNode->gtRegNum, *cns);

        genDefineTempLabel(label);
    }

    genProduceReg(treeNode);
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genFloatToIntCast: Generate code to cast float/double to int/long
//
// Arguments:
//    treeNode - The GT_CAST node
//
// Return Value:
//    None.
//
// Assumptions:
//    Cast is a non-overflow conversion.
//    The treeNode must have an assigned register.
//    SrcType=float/double and DstType= int32/uint32/int64/uint64
//
// TODO-XArch-CQ: (Low-pri) - generate in-line code when DstType = uint64
//
void CodeGen::genFloatToIntCast(GenTreePtr treeNode)
{
    // we don't expect to see overflow detecting float/double --> int type conversions here
    // as they should have been converted into helper calls by front-end.
    assert(treeNode->OperGet() == GT_CAST);
    assert(!treeNode->gtOverflow());

    regNumber targetReg = treeNode->gtRegNum;
    assert(genIsValidIntReg(targetReg));

    GenTreePtr op1 = treeNode->gtOp.gtOp1;
#ifdef DEBUG
    if (!op1->isContained())
    {
        assert(genIsValidFloatReg(op1->gtRegNum));
    }
#endif

    var_types dstType = treeNode->CastToType();
    var_types srcType = op1->TypeGet();
    assert(varTypeIsFloating(srcType) && !varTypeIsFloating(dstType));

    // We should never be seeing dstType whose size is neither sizeof(TYP_INT) nor sizeof(TYP_LONG).
    // For conversions to byte/sbyte/int16/uint16 from float/double, we would expect the
    // front-end or lowering phase to have generated two levels of cast. The first one is
    // for float or double to int32/uint32 and the second one for narrowing int32/uint32 to
    // the required smaller int type.
    emitAttr dstSize = EA_ATTR(genTypeSize(dstType));
    noway_assert((dstSize == EA_ATTR(genTypeSize(TYP_INT))) || (dstSize == EA_ATTR(genTypeSize(TYP_LONG))));

    // We shouldn't be seeing uint64 here as it should have been converted
    // into a helper call by either front-end or lowering phase.
    noway_assert(!varTypeIsUnsigned(dstType) || (dstSize != EA_ATTR(genTypeSize(TYP_LONG))));

    // If the dstType is TYP_UINT, we have 32-bits to encode the
    // float number. Any of 33rd or above bits can be the sign bit.
    // To acheive it we pretend as if we are converting it to a long.
    if (varTypeIsUnsigned(dstType) && (dstSize == EA_ATTR(genTypeSize(TYP_INT))))
    {
        dstType = TYP_LONG;
    }

    // Note that we need to specify dstType here so that it will determine
    // the size of destination integer register and also the rex.w prefix.
    genConsumeOperands(treeNode->AsOp());
    instruction ins = ins_FloatConv(TYP_INT, srcType);
    getEmitter()->emitInsBinary(ins, emitTypeSize(dstType), treeNode, op1);
    genProduceReg(treeNode);
}

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genCkfinite: Generate code for ckfinite opcode.
//
// Arguments:
//    treeNode - The GT_CKFINITE node
//
// Return Value:
//    None.
//
// Assumptions:
//    GT_CKFINITE node has reserved an internal register.
//
// TODO-XArch-CQ - mark the operand as contained if known to be in
// memory (e.g. field or an array element).
//
void CodeGen::genCkfinite(GenTreePtr treeNode)
{
    assert(treeNode->OperGet() == GT_CKFINITE);

    GenTreePtr op1        = treeNode->gtOp.gtOp1;
    var_types  targetType = treeNode->TypeGet();
    int        expMask    = (targetType == TYP_FLOAT) ? 0x7F800000 : 0x7FF00000; // Bit mask to extract exponent.
    regNumber  targetReg  = treeNode->gtRegNum;

    // Extract exponent into a register.
    assert(treeNode->gtRsvdRegs != RBM_NONE);
    assert(genCountBits(treeNode->gtRsvdRegs) == 1);
    regNumber tmpReg = genRegNumFromMask(treeNode->gtRsvdRegs);

    genConsumeReg(op1);

#ifdef _TARGET_64BIT_

    // Copy the floating-point value to an integer register. If we copied a float to a long, then
    // right-shift the value so the high 32 bits of the floating-point value sit in the low 32
    // bits of the integer register.
    instruction ins = ins_CopyFloatToInt(targetType, (targetType == TYP_FLOAT) ? TYP_INT : TYP_LONG);
    inst_RV_RV(ins, op1->gtRegNum, tmpReg, targetType);
    if (targetType == TYP_DOUBLE)
    {
        // right shift by 32 bits to get to exponent.
        inst_RV_SH(INS_shr, EA_8BYTE, tmpReg, 32);
    }

    // Mask exponent with all 1's and check if the exponent is all 1's
    inst_RV_IV(INS_and, tmpReg, expMask, EA_4BYTE);
    inst_RV_IV(INS_cmp, tmpReg, expMask, EA_4BYTE);

    // If exponent is all 1's, throw ArithmeticException
    genJumpToThrowHlpBlk(EJ_je, SCK_ARITH_EXCPN);

    // if it is a finite value copy it to targetReg
    if (targetReg != op1->gtRegNum)
    {
        inst_RV_RV(ins_Copy(targetType), targetReg, op1->gtRegNum, targetType);
    }

#else // !_TARGET_64BIT_

    // If the target type is TYP_DOUBLE, we want to extract the high 32 bits into the register.
    // There is no easy way to do this. To not require an extra register, we'll use shuffles
    // to move the high 32 bits into the low 32 bits, then then shuffle it back, since we
    // need to produce the value into the target register.
    //
    // For TYP_DOUBLE, we'll generate (for targetReg != op1->gtRegNum):
    //    movaps targetReg, op1->gtRegNum
    //    shufps targetReg, targetReg, 0xB1	// WZYX => ZWXY
    //    mov_xmm2i tmpReg, targetReg		// tmpReg <= Y
    //    and tmpReg, <mask>
    //    cmp tmpReg, <mask>
    //    je <throw block>
    //    movaps targetReg, op1->gtRegNum   // copy the value again, instead of un-shuffling it
    //
    // For TYP_DOUBLE with (targetReg == op1->gtRegNum):
    //    shufps targetReg, targetReg, 0xB1	// WZYX => ZWXY
    //    mov_xmm2i tmpReg, targetReg		// tmpReg <= Y
    //    and tmpReg, <mask>
    //    cmp tmpReg, <mask>
    //    je <throw block>
    //    shufps targetReg, targetReg, 0xB1	// ZWXY => WZYX
    //
    // For TYP_FLOAT, it's the same as _TARGET_64BIT_:
    //    mov_xmm2i tmpReg, targetReg		// tmpReg <= low 32 bits
    //    and tmpReg, <mask>
    //    cmp tmpReg, <mask>
    //    je <throw block>
    //    movaps targetReg, op1->gtRegNum   // only if targetReg != op1->gtRegNum

    regNumber copyToTmpSrcReg; // The register we'll copy to the integer temp.

    if (targetType == TYP_DOUBLE)
    {
        if (targetReg != op1->gtRegNum)
        {
            inst_RV_RV(ins_Copy(targetType), targetReg, op1->gtRegNum, targetType);
        }
        inst_RV_RV_IV(INS_shufps, EA_16BYTE, targetReg, targetReg, 0xb1);
        copyToTmpSrcReg = targetReg;
    }
    else
    {
        copyToTmpSrcReg = op1->gtRegNum;
    }

    // Copy only the low 32 bits. This will be the high order 32 bits of the floating-point
    // value, no matter the floating-point type.
    inst_RV_RV(ins_CopyFloatToInt(TYP_FLOAT, TYP_INT), copyToTmpSrcReg, tmpReg, TYP_FLOAT);

    // Mask exponent with all 1's and check if the exponent is all 1's
    inst_RV_IV(INS_and, tmpReg, expMask, EA_4BYTE);
    inst_RV_IV(INS_cmp, tmpReg, expMask, EA_4BYTE);

    // If exponent is all 1's, throw ArithmeticException
    genJumpToThrowHlpBlk(EJ_je, SCK_ARITH_EXCPN);

    if (targetReg != op1->gtRegNum)
    {
        // In both the TYP_FLOAT and TYP_DOUBLE case, the op1 register is untouched,
        // so copy it to the targetReg. This is faster and smaller for TYP_DOUBLE
        // than re-shuffling the targetReg.
        inst_RV_RV(ins_Copy(targetType), targetReg, op1->gtRegNum, targetType);
    }
    else if (targetType == TYP_DOUBLE)
    {
        // We need to re-shuffle the targetReg to get the correct result.
        inst_RV_RV_IV(INS_shufps, EA_16BYTE, targetReg, targetReg, 0xb1);
    }

#endif // !_TARGET_64BIT_

    genProduceReg(treeNode);
}

#ifdef _TARGET_AMD64_
int CodeGenInterface::genSPtoFPdelta()
{
    int delta;

#ifdef PLATFORM_UNIX

    // We require frame chaining on Unix to support native tool unwinding (such as
    // unwinding by the native debugger). We have a CLR-only extension to the
    // unwind codes (UWOP_SET_FPREG_LARGE) to support SP->FP offsets larger than 240.
    // If Unix ever supports EnC, the RSP == RBP assumption will have to be reevaluated.
    delta = genTotalFrameSize();

#else // !PLATFORM_UNIX

    // As per Amd64 ABI, RBP offset from initial RSP can be between 0 and 240 if
    // RBP needs to be reported in unwind codes.  This case would arise for methods
    // with localloc.
    if (compiler->compLocallocUsed)
    {
        // We cannot base delta computation on compLclFrameSize since it changes from
        // tentative to final frame layout and hence there is a possibility of
        // under-estimating offset of vars from FP, which in turn results in under-
        // estimating instruction size.
        //
        // To be predictive and so as never to under-estimate offset of vars from FP
        // we will always position FP at min(240, outgoing arg area size).
        delta = Min(240, (int)compiler->lvaOutgoingArgSpaceSize);
    }
    else if (compiler->opts.compDbgEnC)
    {
        // vm assumption on EnC methods is that rsp and rbp are equal
        delta = 0;
    }
    else
    {
        delta = genTotalFrameSize();
    }

#endif // !PLATFORM_UNIX

    return delta;
}

//---------------------------------------------------------------------
// genTotalFrameSize - return the total size of the stack frame, including local size,
// callee-saved register size, etc. For AMD64, this does not include the caller-pushed
// return address.
//
// Return value:
//    Total frame size
//

int CodeGenInterface::genTotalFrameSize()
{
    assert(!IsUninitialized(compiler->compCalleeRegsPushed));

    int totalFrameSize = compiler->compCalleeRegsPushed * REGSIZE_BYTES + compiler->compLclFrameSize;

    assert(totalFrameSize >= 0);
    return totalFrameSize;
}

//---------------------------------------------------------------------
// genCallerSPtoFPdelta - return the offset from Caller-SP to the frame pointer.
// This number is going to be negative, since the Caller-SP is at a higher
// address than the frame pointer.
//
// There must be a frame pointer to call this function!
//
// We can't compute this directly from the Caller-SP, since the frame pointer
// is based on a maximum delta from Initial-SP, so first we find SP, then
// compute the FP offset.

int CodeGenInterface::genCallerSPtoFPdelta()
{
    assert(isFramePointerUsed());
    int callerSPtoFPdelta;

    callerSPtoFPdelta = genCallerSPtoInitialSPdelta() + genSPtoFPdelta();

    assert(callerSPtoFPdelta <= 0);
    return callerSPtoFPdelta;
}

//---------------------------------------------------------------------
// genCallerSPtoInitialSPdelta - return the offset from Caller-SP to Initial SP.
//
// This number will be negative.

int CodeGenInterface::genCallerSPtoInitialSPdelta()
{
    int callerSPtoSPdelta = 0;

    callerSPtoSPdelta -= genTotalFrameSize();
    callerSPtoSPdelta -= REGSIZE_BYTES; // caller-pushed return address

    // compCalleeRegsPushed does not account for the frame pointer
    // TODO-Cleanup: shouldn't this be part of genTotalFrameSize?
    if (isFramePointerUsed())
    {
        callerSPtoSPdelta -= REGSIZE_BYTES;
    }

    assert(callerSPtoSPdelta <= 0);
    return callerSPtoSPdelta;
}
#endif // _TARGET_AMD64_

//-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genSSE2BitwiseOp - generate SSE2 code for the given oper as "Operand BitWiseOp BitMask"
//
// Arguments:
//    treeNode  - tree node
//
// Return value:
//    None
//
// Assumptions:
//     i) tree oper is one of GT_NEG or GT_INTRINSIC Abs()
//    ii) tree type is floating point type.
//   iii) caller of this routine needs to call genProduceReg()
void CodeGen::genSSE2BitwiseOp(GenTreePtr treeNode)
{
    regNumber targetReg  = treeNode->gtRegNum;
    var_types targetType = treeNode->TypeGet();
    assert(varTypeIsFloating(targetType));

    float       f;
    double      d;
    GenTreePtr* bitMask  = nullptr;
    instruction ins      = INS_invalid;
    void*       cnsAddr  = nullptr;
    bool        dblAlign = false;

    switch (treeNode->OperGet())
    {
        case GT_NEG:
            // Neg(x) = flip the sign bit.
            // Neg(f) = f ^ 0x80000000
            // Neg(d) = d ^ 0x8000000000000000
            ins = genGetInsForOper(GT_XOR, targetType);
            if (targetType == TYP_FLOAT)
            {
                bitMask = &negBitmaskFlt;

                static_assert_no_msg(sizeof(float) == sizeof(int));
                *((int*)&f) = 0x80000000;
                cnsAddr     = &f;
            }
            else
            {
                bitMask = &negBitmaskDbl;

                static_assert_no_msg(sizeof(double) == sizeof(__int64));
                *((__int64*)&d) = 0x8000000000000000LL;
                cnsAddr         = &d;
                dblAlign        = true;
            }
            break;

        case GT_INTRINSIC:
            assert(treeNode->gtIntrinsic.gtIntrinsicId == CORINFO_INTRINSIC_Abs);

            // Abs(x) = set sign-bit to zero
            // Abs(f) = f & 0x7fffffff
            // Abs(d) = d & 0x7fffffffffffffff
            ins = genGetInsForOper(GT_AND, targetType);
            if (targetType == TYP_FLOAT)
            {
                bitMask = &absBitmaskFlt;

                static_assert_no_msg(sizeof(float) == sizeof(int));
                *((int*)&f) = 0x7fffffff;
                cnsAddr     = &f;
            }
            else
            {
                bitMask = &absBitmaskDbl;

                static_assert_no_msg(sizeof(double) == sizeof(__int64));
                *((__int64*)&d) = 0x7fffffffffffffffLL;
                cnsAddr         = &d;
                dblAlign        = true;
            }
            break;

        default:
            assert(!"genSSE2: unsupported oper");
            unreached();
            break;
    }

    if (*bitMask == nullptr)
    {
        assert(cnsAddr != nullptr);
        *bitMask = genMakeConst(cnsAddr, targetType, treeNode, dblAlign);
    }

    // We need an additional register for bitmask.
    // Make sure we have one allocated.
    assert(treeNode->gtRsvdRegs != RBM_NONE);
    assert(genCountBits(treeNode->gtRsvdRegs) == 1);
    regNumber tmpReg = genRegNumFromMask(treeNode->gtRsvdRegs);

    // Move operand into targetReg only if the reg reserved for
    // internal purpose is not the same as targetReg.
    GenTreePtr op1 = treeNode->gtOp.gtOp1;
    assert(!op1->isContained());
    regNumber operandReg = genConsumeReg(op1);
    if (tmpReg != targetReg)
    {
        if (operandReg != targetReg)
        {
            inst_RV_RV(ins_Copy(targetType), targetReg, operandReg, targetType);
        }

        operandReg = tmpReg;
    }

    inst_RV_TT(ins_Load(targetType, false), tmpReg, *bitMask);
    assert(ins != INS_invalid);
    inst_RV_RV(ins, targetReg, operandReg, targetType);
}

//---------------------------------------------------------------------
// genIntrinsic - generate code for a given intrinsic
//
// Arguments
//    treeNode - the GT_INTRINSIC node
//
// Return value:
//    None
//
void CodeGen::genIntrinsic(GenTreePtr treeNode)
{
    // Right now only Sqrt/Abs are treated as math intrinsics.
    switch (treeNode->gtIntrinsic.gtIntrinsicId)
    {
        case CORINFO_INTRINSIC_Sqrt:
            noway_assert(treeNode->TypeGet() == TYP_DOUBLE);
            genConsumeOperands(treeNode->AsOp());
            getEmitter()->emitInsBinary(ins_FloatSqrt(treeNode->TypeGet()), emitTypeSize(treeNode), treeNode,
                                        treeNode->gtOp.gtOp1);
            break;

        case CORINFO_INTRINSIC_Abs:
            genSSE2BitwiseOp(treeNode);
            break;

        default:
            assert(!"genIntrinsic: Unsupported intrinsic");
            unreached();
    }

    genProduceReg(treeNode);
}

//-------------------------------------------------------------------------- //
// getBaseVarForPutArgStk - returns the baseVarNum for passing a stack arg.
//
// Arguments
//    treeNode - the GT_PUTARG_STK node
//
// Return value:
//    The number of the base variable.
//
// Note:
//    If tail call the outgoing args are placed in the caller's incoming arg stack space.
//    Otherwise, they go in the outgoing arg area on the current frame.
//
//    On Windows the caller always creates slots (homing space) in its frame for the
//    first 4 arguments of a callee (register passed args). So, the baseVarNum is always 0.
//    For System V systems there is no such calling convention requirement, and the code needs to find
//    the first stack passed argument from the caller. This is done by iterating over
//    all the lvParam variables and finding the first with lvArgReg equals to REG_STK.
//
unsigned CodeGen::getBaseVarForPutArgStk(GenTreePtr treeNode)
{
    assert(treeNode->OperGet() == GT_PUTARG_STK);

    unsigned baseVarNum;

#if FEATURE_FASTTAILCALL
    bool putInIncomingArgArea = treeNode->AsPutArgStk()->putInIncomingArgArea;
#else
    const bool putInIncomingArgArea = false;
#endif

    // Whether to setup stk arg in incoming or out-going arg area?
    // Fast tail calls implemented as epilog+jmp = stk arg is setup in incoming arg area.
    // All other calls - stk arg is setup in out-going arg area.
    if (putInIncomingArgArea)
    {
        // See the note in the function header re: finding the first stack passed argument.
        baseVarNum = getFirstArgWithStackSlot();
        assert(baseVarNum != BAD_VAR_NUM);

#ifdef DEBUG
        // This must be a fast tail call.
        assert(treeNode->AsPutArgStk()->gtCall->AsCall()->IsFastTailCall());

        // Since it is a fast tail call, the existence of first incoming arg is guaranteed
        // because fast tail call requires that in-coming arg area of caller is >= out-going
        // arg area required for tail call.
        LclVarDsc* varDsc = &(compiler->lvaTable[baseVarNum]);
        assert(varDsc != nullptr);

#ifdef FEATURE_UNIX_AMD64_STRUCT_PASSING
        assert(!varDsc->lvIsRegArg && varDsc->lvArgReg == REG_STK);
#else  // !FEATURE_UNIX_AMD64_STRUCT_PASSING
        // On Windows this assert is always true. The first argument will always be in REG_ARG_0 or REG_FLTARG_0.
        assert(varDsc->lvIsRegArg && (varDsc->lvArgReg == REG_ARG_0 || varDsc->lvArgReg == REG_FLTARG_0));
#endif // !FEATURE_UNIX_AMD64_STRUCT_PASSING
#endif // !DEBUG
    }
    else
    {
#if FEATURE_FIXED_OUT_ARGS
        baseVarNum = compiler->lvaOutgoingArgSpaceVar;
#else  // !FEATURE_FIXED_OUT_ARGS
        NYI_X86("Stack args for x86/RyuJIT");
        baseVarNum = BAD_VAR_NUM;
#endif // !FEATURE_FIXED_OUT_ARGS
    }

    return baseVarNum;
}

//--------------------------------------------------------------------- //
// genPutStructArgStk - generate code for passing an arg on the stack.
//
// Arguments
//    treeNode      - the GT_PUTARG_STK node
//    targetType    - the type of the treeNode
//
// Return value:
//    None
//
void CodeGen::genPutArgStk(GenTreePtr treeNode)
{
    var_types targetType = treeNode->TypeGet();
#ifdef _TARGET_X86_
    noway_assert(targetType != TYP_STRUCT);

    // The following logic is applicable for x86 arch.
    assert(!varTypeIsFloating(targetType) || (targetType == treeNode->gtGetOp1()->TypeGet()));

    GenTreePtr data = treeNode->gtOp.gtOp1;

    // On a 32-bit target, all of the long arguments have been decomposed into
    // a separate putarg_stk for each of the upper and lower halves.
    noway_assert(targetType != TYP_LONG);

    int argSize = genTypeSize(genActualType(targetType));
    genStackLevel += argSize;

    // TODO-Cleanup: Handle this in emitInsMov() in emitXArch.cpp?
    if (data->isContainedIntOrIImmed())
    {
        if (data->IsIconHandle())
        {
            inst_IV_handle(INS_push, data->gtIntCon.gtIconVal);
        }
        else
        {
            inst_IV(INS_push, data->gtIntCon.gtIconVal);
        }
    }
    else if (data->isContained())
    {
        NYI_X86("Contained putarg_stk of non-constant");
    }
    else
    {
        genConsumeReg(data);
        if (varTypeIsIntegralOrI(targetType))
        {
            inst_RV(INS_push, data->gtRegNum, targetType);
        }
        else
        {
            // Decrement SP.
            inst_RV_IV(INS_sub, REG_SPBASE, argSize, emitActualTypeSize(TYP_I_IMPL));
            getEmitter()->emitIns_AR_R(ins_Store(targetType), emitTypeSize(targetType), data->gtRegNum, REG_SPBASE, 0);
        }
    }
#else // !_TARGET_X86_
    {
        unsigned baseVarNum = getBaseVarForPutArgStk(treeNode);

#ifdef FEATURE_UNIX_AMD64_STRUCT_PASSING

        if (varTypeIsStruct(targetType))
        {
            genPutStructArgStk(treeNode, baseVarNum);
            return;
        }
#endif // FEATURE_UNIX_AMD64_STRUCT_PASSING

        noway_assert(targetType != TYP_STRUCT);
        assert(!varTypeIsFloating(targetType) || (targetType == treeNode->gtGetOp1()->TypeGet()));

        // Get argument offset on stack.
        // Here we cross check that argument offset hasn't changed from lowering to codegen since
        // we are storing arg slot number in GT_PUTARG_STK node in lowering phase.
        int              argOffset      = treeNode->AsPutArgStk()->getArgOffset();

#ifdef DEBUG
        fgArgTabEntryPtr curArgTabEntry = compiler->gtArgEntryByNode(treeNode->AsPutArgStk()->gtCall, treeNode);
        assert(curArgTabEntry);
        assert(argOffset == (int)curArgTabEntry->slotNum * TARGET_POINTER_SIZE);
#endif

        GenTreePtr data = treeNode->gtGetOp1();

        if (data->isContained())
        {
            getEmitter()->emitIns_S_I(ins_Store(targetType), emitTypeSize(targetType), baseVarNum, argOffset,
                                      (int)data->AsIntConCommon()->IconValue());
        }
        else
        {
            genConsumeReg(data);
            getEmitter()->emitIns_S_R(ins_Store(targetType), emitTypeSize(targetType), data->gtRegNum, baseVarNum,
                                      argOffset);
        }
    }
#endif // !_TARGET_X86_
}

#if defined(FEATURE_UNIX_AMD64_STRUCT_PASSING)

//---------------------------------------------------------------------
// genPutStructArgStk - generate code for copying a struct arg on the stack by value.
//                In case there are references to heap object in the struct,
//                it generates the gcinfo as well.
//
// Arguments
//    treeNode      - the GT_PUTARG_STK node
//    baseVarNum    - the variable number relative to which to put the argument on the stack.
//                    For tail calls this is the baseVarNum = 0.
//                    For non tail calls this is the outgoingArgSpace.
//
// Return value:
//    None
//
void CodeGen::genPutStructArgStk(GenTreePtr treeNode, unsigned baseVarNum)
{
    assert(treeNode->OperGet() == GT_PUTARG_STK);
    assert(baseVarNum != BAD_VAR_NUM);

    var_types targetType = treeNode->TypeGet();

    if (varTypeIsSIMD(targetType))
    {
        regNumber srcReg = genConsumeReg(treeNode->gtGetOp1());
        assert((srcReg != REG_NA) && (genIsValidFloatReg(srcReg)));
        getEmitter()->emitIns_S_R(ins_Store(targetType), emitTypeSize(targetType), srcReg, baseVarNum,
                                  treeNode->AsPutArgStk()->getArgOffset());
        return;
    }

    assert(targetType == TYP_STRUCT);

    GenTreePutArgStk* putArgStk = treeNode->AsPutArgStk();
    if (putArgStk->gtNumberReferenceSlots == 0)
    {
        switch (putArgStk->gtPutArgStkKind)
        {
            case GenTreePutArgStk::PutArgStkKindRepInstr:
                genStructPutArgRepMovs(putArgStk, baseVarNum);
                break;
            case GenTreePutArgStk::PutArgStkKindUnroll:
                genStructPutArgUnroll(putArgStk, baseVarNum);
                break;
            default:
                unreached();
        }
    }
    else
    {
        // No need to disable GC the way COPYOBJ does. Here the refs are copied in atomic operations always.

        // Consume these registers.
        // They may now contain gc pointers (depending on their type; gcMarkRegPtrVal will "do the right thing").
        genConsumePutStructArgStk(putArgStk, REG_RDI, REG_RSI, REG_NA, baseVarNum);
        GenTreePtr dstAddr = putArgStk;
        GenTreePtr src     = putArgStk->gtOp.gtOp1;
        assert(src->OperGet() == GT_OBJ);
        GenTreePtr srcAddr = src->gtGetOp1();

        unsigned slots = putArgStk->gtNumSlots;

        // We are always on the stack we don't need to use the write barrier.
        BYTE*    gcPtrs     = putArgStk->gtGcPtrs;
        unsigned gcPtrCount = putArgStk->gtNumberReferenceSlots;

        unsigned i           = 0;
        unsigned copiedSlots = 0;
        while (i < slots)
        {
            switch (gcPtrs[i])
            {
                case TYPE_GC_NONE:
                    // Let's see if we can use rep movsq instead of a sequence of movsq instructions
                    // to save cycles and code size.
                    {
                        unsigned nonGcSlotCount = 0;

                        do
                        {
                            nonGcSlotCount++;
                            i++;
                        } while (i < slots && gcPtrs[i] == TYPE_GC_NONE);

                        // If we have a very small contiguous non-gc region, it's better just to
                        // emit a sequence of movsq instructions
                        if (nonGcSlotCount < CPOBJ_NONGC_SLOTS_LIMIT)
                        {
                            copiedSlots += nonGcSlotCount;
                            while (nonGcSlotCount > 0)
                            {
                                instGen(INS_movsq);
                                nonGcSlotCount--;
                            }
                        }
                        else
                        {
                            getEmitter()->emitIns_R_I(INS_mov, EA_4BYTE, REG_RCX, nonGcSlotCount);
                            copiedSlots += nonGcSlotCount;
                            instGen(INS_r_movsq);
                        }
                    }
                    break;

                case TYPE_GC_REF:   // Is an object ref
                case TYPE_GC_BYREF: // Is an interior pointer - promote it but don't scan it
                {
                    // We have a GC (byref or ref) pointer
                    // TODO-Amd64-Unix: Here a better solution (for code size and CQ) would be to use movsq instruction,
                    // but the logic for emitting a GC info record is not available (it is internal for the emitter
                    // only.) See emitGCVarLiveUpd function. If we could call it separately, we could do
                    // instGen(INS_movsq); and emission of gc info.

                    var_types memType;
                    if (gcPtrs[i] == TYPE_GC_REF)
                    {
                        memType = TYP_REF;
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        assert(gcPtrs[i] == TYPE_GC_BYREF);
                        memType = TYP_BYREF;
                    }

                    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_AR(ins_Load(memType), emitTypeSize(memType), REG_RCX, REG_RSI, 0);
                    getEmitter()->emitIns_S_R(ins_Store(memType), emitTypeSize(memType), REG_RCX, baseVarNum,
                                              ((copiedSlots + putArgStk->gtSlotNum) * TARGET_POINTER_SIZE));

                    // Source for the copy operation.
                    // If a LocalAddr, use EA_PTRSIZE - copy from stack.
                    // If not a LocalAddr, use EA_BYREF - the source location is not on the stack.
                    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_I(INS_add, ((src->OperIsLocalAddr()) ? EA_PTRSIZE : EA_BYREF), REG_RSI,
                                              TARGET_POINTER_SIZE);

                    // Always copying to the stack - outgoing arg area
                    // (or the outgoing arg area of the caller for a tail call) - use EA_PTRSIZE.
                    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_I(INS_add, EA_PTRSIZE, REG_RDI, TARGET_POINTER_SIZE);
                    copiedSlots++;
                    gcPtrCount--;
                    i++;
                }
                break;

                default:
                    unreached();
                    break;
            }
        }

        assert(gcPtrCount == 0);
    }
}
#endif // defined(FEATURE_UNIX_AMD64_STRUCT_PASSING)

/*****************************************************************************
 *
 *  Create and record GC Info for the function.
 */
#ifdef _TARGET_AMD64_
void
#else  // !_TARGET_AMD64_
void*
#endif // !_TARGET_AMD64_
CodeGen::genCreateAndStoreGCInfo(unsigned codeSize, unsigned prologSize, unsigned epilogSize DEBUGARG(void* codePtr))
{
#ifdef JIT32_GCENCODER
    return genCreateAndStoreGCInfoJIT32(codeSize, prologSize, epilogSize DEBUGARG(codePtr));
#else  // !JIT32_GCENCODER
    genCreateAndStoreGCInfoX64(codeSize, prologSize DEBUGARG(codePtr));
#endif // !JIT32_GCENCODER
}

#ifdef JIT32_GCENCODER
void* CodeGen::genCreateAndStoreGCInfoJIT32(unsigned codeSize,
                                            unsigned prologSize,
                                            unsigned epilogSize DEBUGARG(void* codePtr))
{
    BYTE    headerBuf[64];
    InfoHdr header;

    int s_cached;
#ifdef DEBUG
    size_t headerSize =
#endif
        compiler->compInfoBlkSize =
            gcInfo.gcInfoBlockHdrSave(headerBuf, 0, codeSize, prologSize, epilogSize, &header, &s_cached);

    size_t argTabOffset = 0;
    size_t ptrMapSize   = gcInfo.gcPtrTableSize(header, codeSize, &argTabOffset);

#if DISPLAY_SIZES

    if (genInterruptible)
    {
        gcHeaderISize += compiler->compInfoBlkSize;
        gcPtrMapISize += ptrMapSize;
    }
    else
    {
        gcHeaderNSize += compiler->compInfoBlkSize;
        gcPtrMapNSize += ptrMapSize;
    }

#endif // DISPLAY_SIZES

    compiler->compInfoBlkSize += ptrMapSize;

    /* Allocate the info block for the method */

    compiler->compInfoBlkAddr = (BYTE*)compiler->info.compCompHnd->allocGCInfo(compiler->compInfoBlkSize);

#if 0 // VERBOSE_SIZES
    // TODO-X86-Cleanup: 'dataSize', below, is not defined

//  if  (compiler->compInfoBlkSize > codeSize && compiler->compInfoBlkSize > 100)
    {
        printf("[%7u VM, %7u+%7u/%7u x86 %03u/%03u%%] %s.%s\n",
               compiler->info.compILCodeSize,
               compiler->compInfoBlkSize,
               codeSize + dataSize,
               codeSize + dataSize - prologSize - epilogSize,
               100 * (codeSize + dataSize) / compiler->info.compILCodeSize,
               100 * (codeSize + dataSize + compiler->compInfoBlkSize) / compiler->info.compILCodeSize,
               compiler->info.compClassName,
               compiler->info.compMethodName);
}

#endif

    /* Fill in the info block and return it to the caller */

    void* infoPtr = compiler->compInfoBlkAddr;

    /* Create the method info block: header followed by GC tracking tables */

    compiler->compInfoBlkAddr +=
        gcInfo.gcInfoBlockHdrSave(compiler->compInfoBlkAddr, -1, codeSize, prologSize, epilogSize, &header, &s_cached);

    assert(compiler->compInfoBlkAddr == (BYTE*)infoPtr + headerSize);
    compiler->compInfoBlkAddr = gcInfo.gcPtrTableSave(compiler->compInfoBlkAddr, header, codeSize, &argTabOffset);
    assert(compiler->compInfoBlkAddr == (BYTE*)infoPtr + headerSize + ptrMapSize);

#ifdef DEBUG

    if (0)
    {
        BYTE*    temp = (BYTE*)infoPtr;
        unsigned size = compiler->compInfoBlkAddr - temp;
        BYTE*    ptab = temp + headerSize;

        noway_assert(size == headerSize + ptrMapSize);

        printf("Method info block - header [%u bytes]:", headerSize);

        for (unsigned i = 0; i < size; i++)
        {
            if (temp == ptab)
            {
                printf("\nMethod info block - ptrtab [%u bytes]:", ptrMapSize);
                printf("\n    %04X: %*c", i & ~0xF, 3 * (i & 0xF), ' ');
            }
            else
            {
                if (!(i % 16))
                    printf("\n    %04X: ", i);
            }

            printf("%02X ", *temp++);
        }

        printf("\n");
    }

#endif // DEBUG

#if DUMP_GC_TABLES

    if (compiler->opts.dspGCtbls)
    {
        const BYTE* base = (BYTE*)infoPtr;
        unsigned    size;
        unsigned    methodSize;
        InfoHdr     dumpHeader;

        printf("GC Info for method %s\n", compiler->info.compFullName);
        printf("GC info size = %3u\n", compiler->compInfoBlkSize);

        size = gcInfo.gcInfoBlockHdrDump(base, &dumpHeader, &methodSize);
        // printf("size of header encoding is %3u\n", size);
        printf("\n");

        if (compiler->opts.dspGCtbls)
        {
            base += size;
            size = gcInfo.gcDumpPtrTable(base, dumpHeader, methodSize);
            // printf("size of pointer table is %3u\n", size);
            printf("\n");
            noway_assert(compiler->compInfoBlkAddr == (base + size));
        }
    }

#ifdef DEBUG
    if (jitOpts.testMask & 128)
    {
        for (unsigned offs = 0; offs < codeSize; offs++)
        {
            gcInfo.gcFindPtrsInFrame(infoPtr, codePtr, offs);
        }
    }
#endif // DEBUG
#endif // DUMP_GC_TABLES

    /* Make sure we ended up generating the expected number of bytes */

    noway_assert(compiler->compInfoBlkAddr == (BYTE*)infoPtr + compiler->compInfoBlkSize);

    return infoPtr;
}

#else // !JIT32_GCENCODER
void CodeGen::genCreateAndStoreGCInfoX64(unsigned codeSize, unsigned prologSize DEBUGARG(void* codePtr))
{
    IAllocator*    allowZeroAlloc = new (compiler, CMK_GC) AllowZeroAllocator(compiler->getAllocatorGC());
    GcInfoEncoder* gcInfoEncoder  = new (compiler, CMK_GC)
        GcInfoEncoder(compiler->info.compCompHnd, compiler->info.compMethodInfo, allowZeroAlloc, NOMEM);
    assert(gcInfoEncoder);

    // Follow the code pattern of the x86 gc info encoder (genCreateAndStoreGCInfoJIT32).
    gcInfo.gcInfoBlockHdrSave(gcInfoEncoder, codeSize, prologSize);

    // First we figure out the encoder ID's for the stack slots and registers.
    gcInfo.gcMakeRegPtrTable(gcInfoEncoder, codeSize, prologSize, GCInfo::MAKE_REG_PTR_MODE_ASSIGN_SLOTS);
    // Now we've requested all the slots we'll need; "finalize" these (make more compact data structures for them).
    gcInfoEncoder->FinalizeSlotIds();
    // Now we can actually use those slot ID's to declare live ranges.
    gcInfo.gcMakeRegPtrTable(gcInfoEncoder, codeSize, prologSize, GCInfo::MAKE_REG_PTR_MODE_DO_WORK);

#if defined(DEBUGGING_SUPPORT)
    if (compiler->opts.compDbgEnC)
    {
        // what we have to preserve is called the "frame header" (see comments in VM\eetwain.cpp)
        // which is:
        //  -return address
        //  -saved off RBP
        //  -saved 'this' pointer and bool for synchronized methods

        // 4 slots for RBP + return address + RSI + RDI
        int preservedAreaSize = 4 * REGSIZE_BYTES;

        if (compiler->info.compFlags & CORINFO_FLG_SYNCH)
        {
            if (!(compiler->info.compFlags & CORINFO_FLG_STATIC))
            {
                preservedAreaSize += REGSIZE_BYTES;
            }

            // bool in synchronized methods that tracks whether the lock has been taken (takes 4 bytes on stack)
            preservedAreaSize += 4;
        }

        // Used to signal both that the method is compiled for EnC, and also the size of the block at the top of the
        // frame
        gcInfoEncoder->SetSizeOfEditAndContinuePreservedArea(preservedAreaSize);
    }
#endif

    gcInfoEncoder->Build();

    // GC Encoder automatically puts the GC info in the right spot using ICorJitInfo::allocGCInfo(size_t)
    // let's save the values anyway for debugging purposes
    compiler->compInfoBlkAddr = gcInfoEncoder->Emit();
    compiler->compInfoBlkSize = 0; // not exposed by the GCEncoder interface
}
#endif // !JIT32_GCENCODER

/*****************************************************************************
 *  Emit a call to a helper function.
 *
 */

void CodeGen::genEmitHelperCall(unsigned helper, int argSize, emitAttr retSize, regNumber callTargetReg)
{
    void* addr  = nullptr;
    void* pAddr = nullptr;

    emitter::EmitCallType callType = emitter::EC_FUNC_TOKEN;
    addr                           = compiler->compGetHelperFtn((CorInfoHelpFunc)helper, &pAddr);
    regNumber callTarget           = REG_NA;
    regMaskTP killMask             = compiler->compHelperCallKillSet((CorInfoHelpFunc)helper);

    if (!addr)
    {
        assert(pAddr != nullptr);

        // Absolute indirect call addr
        // Note: Order of checks is important. First always check for pc-relative and next
        // zero-relative.  Because the former encoding is 1-byte smaller than the latter.
        if (genCodeIndirAddrCanBeEncodedAsPCRelOffset((size_t)pAddr) ||
            genCodeIndirAddrCanBeEncodedAsZeroRelOffset((size_t)pAddr))
        {
            // generate call whose target is specified by 32-bit offset relative to PC or zero.
            callType = emitter::EC_FUNC_TOKEN_INDIR;
            addr     = pAddr;
        }
        else
        {
#ifdef _TARGET_AMD64_
            // If this indirect address cannot be encoded as 32-bit offset relative to PC or Zero,
            // load it into REG_HELPER_CALL_TARGET and use register indirect addressing mode to
            // make the call.
            //    mov   reg, addr
            //    call  [reg]

            if (callTargetReg == REG_NA)
            {
                // If a callTargetReg has not been explicitly provided, we will use REG_DEFAULT_HELPER_CALL_TARGET, but
                // this is only a valid assumption if the helper call is known to kill REG_DEFAULT_HELPER_CALL_TARGET.
                callTargetReg            = REG_DEFAULT_HELPER_CALL_TARGET;
                regMaskTP callTargetMask = genRegMask(callTargetReg);
                noway_assert((callTargetMask & killMask) == callTargetMask);
            }
            else
            {
                // The call target must not overwrite any live variable, though it may not be in the
                // kill set for the call.
                regMaskTP callTargetMask = genRegMask(callTargetReg);
                noway_assert((callTargetMask & regSet.rsMaskVars) == RBM_NONE);
            }
#endif

            callTarget = callTargetReg;
            CodeGen::genSetRegToIcon(callTarget, (ssize_t)pAddr, TYP_I_IMPL);
            callType = emitter::EC_INDIR_ARD;
        }
    }

    getEmitter()->emitIns_Call(callType, compiler->eeFindHelper(helper), INDEBUG_LDISASM_COMMA(nullptr) addr, argSize,
                               retSize FEATURE_UNIX_AMD64_STRUCT_PASSING_ONLY_ARG(EA_UNKNOWN), gcInfo.gcVarPtrSetCur,
                               gcInfo.gcRegGCrefSetCur, gcInfo.gcRegByrefSetCur,
                               BAD_IL_OFFSET, // IL offset
                               callTarget,    // ireg
                               REG_NA, 0, 0,  // xreg, xmul, disp
                               false,         // isJump
                               emitter::emitNoGChelper(helper));

    regTracker.rsTrashRegSet(killMask);
    regTracker.rsTrashRegsForGCInterruptability();
}

#if !defined(_TARGET_64BIT_)
//-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
//
// Code Generation for Long integers
//
//-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

//------------------------------------------------------------------------
// genStoreLongLclVar: Generate code to store a non-enregistered long lclVar
//
// Arguments:
//    treeNode - A TYP_LONG lclVar node.
//
// Return Value:
//    None.
//
// Assumptions:
//    'treeNode' must be a TYP_LONG lclVar node for a lclVar that has NOT been promoted.
//    Its operand must be a GT_LONG node.
//
void CodeGen::genStoreLongLclVar(GenTree* treeNode)
{
    emitter* emit = getEmitter();

    GenTreeLclVarCommon* lclNode = treeNode->AsLclVarCommon();
    unsigned             lclNum  = lclNode->gtLclNum;
    LclVarDsc*           varDsc  = &(compiler->lvaTable[lclNum]);
    assert(varDsc->TypeGet() == TYP_LONG);
    assert(!varDsc->lvPromoted);
    GenTreePtr op1 = treeNode->gtOp.gtOp1;
    noway_assert(op1->OperGet() == GT_LONG);
    genConsumeRegs(op1);

    // Definitions of register candidates will have been lowered to 2 int lclVars.
    assert(!treeNode->InReg());

    GenTreePtr loVal = op1->gtGetOp1();
    GenTreePtr hiVal = op1->gtGetOp2();
    // NYI: Contained immediates.
    NYI_IF((loVal->gtRegNum == REG_NA) || (hiVal->gtRegNum == REG_NA), "Store of long lclVar with contained immediate");
    emit->emitIns_R_S(ins_Store(TYP_INT), EA_4BYTE, loVal->gtRegNum, lclNum, 0);
    emit->emitIns_R_S(ins_Store(TYP_INT), EA_4BYTE, hiVal->gtRegNum, lclNum, genTypeSize(TYP_INT));
}
#endif // !defined(_TARGET_64BIT_)

/*****************************************************************************
* Unit testing of the XArch emitter: generate a bunch of instructions into the prolog
* (it's as good a place as any), then use COMPlus_JitLateDisasm=* to see if the late
* disassembler thinks the instructions as the same as we do.
*/

// Uncomment "#define ALL_ARM64_EMITTER_UNIT_TESTS" to run all the unit tests here.
// After adding a unit test, and verifying it works, put it under this #ifdef, so we don't see it run every time.
//#define ALL_XARCH_EMITTER_UNIT_TESTS

#if defined(DEBUG) && defined(LATE_DISASM) && defined(_TARGET_AMD64_)
void CodeGen::genAmd64EmitterUnitTests()
{
    if (!verbose)
    {
        return;
    }

    if (!compiler->opts.altJit)
    {
        // No point doing this in a "real" JIT.
        return;
    }

    // Mark the "fake" instructions in the output.
    printf("*************** In genAmd64EmitterUnitTests()\n");

    // We use this:
    //      genDefineTempLabel(genCreateTempLabel());
    // to create artificial labels to help separate groups of tests.

    //
    // Loads
    //
    CLANG_FORMAT_COMMENT_ANCHOR;

#ifdef ALL_XARCH_EMITTER_UNIT_TESTS
#ifdef FEATURE_AVX_SUPPORT
    genDefineTempLabel(genCreateTempLabel());

    // vhaddpd     ymm0,ymm1,ymm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_haddpd, EA_32BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
    // vaddss      xmm0,xmm1,xmm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_addss, EA_4BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
    // vaddsd      xmm0,xmm1,xmm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_addsd, EA_8BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
    // vaddps      xmm0,xmm1,xmm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_addps, EA_16BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
    // vaddps      ymm0,ymm1,ymm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_addps, EA_32BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
    // vaddpd      xmm0,xmm1,xmm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_addpd, EA_16BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
    // vaddpd      ymm0,ymm1,ymm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_addpd, EA_32BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
    // vsubss      xmm0,xmm1,xmm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_subss, EA_4BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
    // vsubsd      xmm0,xmm1,xmm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_subsd, EA_8BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
    // vsubps      ymm0,ymm1,ymm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_subps, EA_16BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
    // vsubps      ymm0,ymm1,ymm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_subps, EA_32BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
    // vsubpd      xmm0,xmm1,xmm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_subpd, EA_16BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
    // vsubpd      ymm0,ymm1,ymm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_subpd, EA_32BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
    // vmulss      xmm0,xmm1,xmm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_mulss, EA_4BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
    // vmulsd      xmm0,xmm1,xmm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_mulsd, EA_8BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
    // vmulps      xmm0,xmm1,xmm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_mulps, EA_16BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
    // vmulpd      xmm0,xmm1,xmm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_mulpd, EA_16BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
    // vmulps      ymm0,ymm1,ymm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_mulps, EA_32BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
    // vmulpd      ymm0,ymm1,ymm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_mulpd, EA_32BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
    // vandps      xmm0,xmm1,xmm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_andps, EA_16BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
    // vandpd      xmm0,xmm1,xmm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_andpd, EA_16BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
    // vandps      ymm0,ymm1,ymm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_andps, EA_32BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
    // vandpd      ymm0,ymm1,ymm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_andpd, EA_32BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
    // vorps      xmm0,xmm1,xmm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_orps, EA_16BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
    // vorpd      xmm0,xmm1,xmm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_orpd, EA_16BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
    // vorps      ymm0,ymm1,ymm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_orps, EA_32BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
    // vorpd      ymm0,ymm1,ymm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_orpd, EA_32BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
    // vdivss      xmm0,xmm1,xmm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_divss, EA_4BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
    // vdivsd      xmm0,xmm1,xmm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_divsd, EA_8BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
    // vdivss      xmm0,xmm1,xmm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_divss, EA_4BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
    // vdivsd      xmm0,xmm1,xmm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_divsd, EA_8BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);

    // vdivss      xmm0,xmm1,xmm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_cvtss2sd, EA_4BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
    // vdivsd      xmm0,xmm1,xmm2
    getEmitter()->emitIns_R_R_R(INS_cvtsd2ss, EA_8BYTE, REG_XMM0, REG_XMM1, REG_XMM2);
#endif // FEATURE_AVX_SUPPORT
#endif // ALL_XARCH_EMITTER_UNIT_TESTS
    printf("*************** End of genAmd64EmitterUnitTests()\n");
}

#endif // defined(DEBUG) && defined(LATE_DISASM) && defined(_TARGET_AMD64_)

/*****************************************************************************/
#ifdef DEBUGGING_SUPPORT
/*****************************************************************************
 *                          genSetScopeInfo
 *
 * Called for every scope info piece to record by the main genSetScopeInfo()
 */

void CodeGen::genSetScopeInfo(unsigned            which,
                              UNATIVE_OFFSET      startOffs,
                              UNATIVE_OFFSET      length,
                              unsigned            varNum,
                              unsigned            LVnum,
                              bool                avail,
                              Compiler::siVarLoc& varLoc)
{
    /* We need to do some mapping while reporting back these variables */

    unsigned ilVarNum = compiler->compMap2ILvarNum(varNum);
    noway_assert((int)ilVarNum != ICorDebugInfo::UNKNOWN_ILNUM);

    VarName name = nullptr;

#ifdef DEBUG

    for (unsigned scopeNum = 0; scopeNum < compiler->info.compVarScopesCount; scopeNum++)
    {
        if (LVnum == compiler->info.compVarScopes[scopeNum].vsdLVnum)
        {
            name = compiler->info.compVarScopes[scopeNum].vsdName;
        }
    }

    // Hang on to this compiler->info.

    TrnslLocalVarInfo& tlvi = genTrnslLocalVarInfo[which];

    tlvi.tlviVarNum    = ilVarNum;
    tlvi.tlviLVnum     = LVnum;
    tlvi.tlviName      = name;
    tlvi.tlviStartPC   = startOffs;
    tlvi.tlviLength    = length;
    tlvi.tlviAvailable = avail;
    tlvi.tlviVarLoc    = varLoc;

#endif // DEBUG

    compiler->eeSetLVinfo(which, startOffs, length, ilVarNum, LVnum, name, avail, varLoc);
}
#endif // DEBUGGING_SUPPORT

#endif // _TARGET_AMD64_

#endif // !LEGACY_BACKEND