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Debugging CoreCLR
=================

These instructions will lead you through debugging CoreCLR on Windows and Linux. They will be expanded to support macOS when we have good instructions for that.

Debugging CoreCLR on Windows
============================

1. Perform a build of the repo.
2. Open solution \<reporoot\>\bin\obj\Windows_NT.\<platform\>.\<configuration\>\CoreCLR.sln in Visual Studio. \<platform\> and \<configuration\> are based
    on type of build you did. By default they are 'x64' and 'Debug'.
3. Right-click the INSTALL project and choose ‘Set as StartUp Project’
4. Bring up the properties page for the INSTALL project
5. Select Configuration Properties->Debugging from the left side tree control
6. Set Command=`$(SolutionDir)..\..\product\Windows_NT.$(Platform).$(Configuration)\corerun.exe`
    1. This points to the folder where the built runtime binaries are present.
7. Set Command Arguments=`<managed app you wish to run>` (e.g. HelloWorld.exe)
8. Set Working Directory=`$(SolutionDir)..\..\product\Windows_NT.$(Platform).$(Configuration)`
    1. This points to the folder containing CoreCLR binaries.
9. Press F11 to start debugging at wmain in corerun (or set a breakpoint in source and press F5 to run to it)
    1. As an example, set a breakpoint for the EEStartup function in ceemain.cpp to break into CoreCLR startup.

Steps 1-8 only need to be done once, and then (9) can be repeated whenever you want to start debugging. The above can be done with Visual Studio 2013.

### Using SOS with windbg or cdb on Windows ###

If you know the path of the `sos.dll` for the version of your runtime, load it like `.load c:\path\to\sos\sos.dll`. Use can use the `lm` command to find the path of the "coreclr.dll" module. `.loadby sos coreclr` should also work.

For more information on SOS commands click [here](https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb190764(v=vs.110).aspx).

Debugging CoreCLR on OS X
==========================

To use lldb on OS X, you first need to build it and the SOS plugin on the machine you intend to use it. See the instructions in [building lldb](buildinglldb.md). The rest of instructions on how to use lldb for Linux on are the same.

Debugging CoreCLR on Linux
==========================

Only lldb is supported by the SOS plugin. gdb can be used to debug the coreclr code but with no SOS support. Visual Studio 2015 RTM remote debugging isn't currently supported.

1. Perform a build of the coreclr repo.
2. Install the corefx managed assemblies to the binaries directory.
3. cd to build's binaries: `cd ~/coreclr/bin/Product/Linux.x64.Debug`
4. Start lldb (the version the plugin was built with, currently 3.9): `lldb-3.9 corerun HelloWorld.exe linux`
5. Now at the lldb command prompt, load SOS plugin: `plugin load libsosplugin.so`
6. Launch program: `process launch -s`
7. To stop annoying breaks on SIGUSR1/SIGUSR2 signals used by the runtime run: `process handle -s false SIGUSR1 SIGUSR2`
8. Get to a point where coreclr is initialized by setting a breakpoint (i.e. `breakpoint set -n LoadLibraryExW` and then `process continue`) or stepping into the runtime.
9. Run a SOS command like `sos ClrStack` or `sos VerifyHeap`.  The command name is case sensitive.

You can combine steps 4-8 and pass everything on the lldb command line:

`lldb-3.9 -o "plugin load libsosplugin.so" -o "process launch -s" -o "process handle -s false SIGUSR1 SIGUSR2" -o "breakpoint set -n LoadLibraryExW" corerun HelloWorld.exe linux`

For .NET Core version 1.x and 2.0.x, libsosplugin.so is built for and will only work with version 3.6 of lldb. For .NET Core 2.1, the plugin is built for 3.9 lldb and will work with 3.8 and 3.9 lldb.

**Note:** _corerun_ is a simple host that does not support resolving NuGet dependencies. It relies on libraries being locatable via the `CORE_LIBRARIES` environment variable or present in the same directory as the corerun executable. The instructions above are equally applicable to the _dotnet_ host, however - e.g. for step 4 `lldb-3.9 dotnet bin/Debug/netcoreapp2.1/MvcApplication.dll` will let you debug _MvcApplication_ in the same manner.

### SOS commands ###

This is the full list of commands currently supported by SOS. lldb is case-sensitive, unlike windbg.

    Type "soshelp <functionname>" for detailed info on that function.

    Object Inspection                  Examining code and stacks
    -----------------------------      -----------------------------
    DumpObj (dumpobj)                  Threads (clrthreads)
    DumpArray                          ThreadState
    DumpStackObjects (dso)             IP2MD (ip2md)
    DumpHeap (dumpheap)                u (clru)
    DumpVC                             DumpStack (dumpstack)
    GCRoot (gcroot)                    EEStack (eestack)
    PrintException (pe)                ClrStack (clrstack)
                                       GCInfo
                                       EHInfo
                                       bpmd (bpmd)

    Examining CLR data structures      Diagnostic Utilities
    -----------------------------      -----------------------------
    DumpDomain                         VerifyHeap
    EEHeap (eeheap)                    FindAppDomain
    Name2EE (name2ee)                  DumpLog (dumplog)
    DumpMT (dumpmt)                    CreateDump (createdump)
    DumpClass (dumpclass)
    DumpMD (dumpmd)
    Token2EE
    DumpModule (dumpmodule)
    DumpAssembly
    DumpRuntimeTypes
    DumpIL (dumpil)
    DumpSig
    DumpSigElem

    Examining the GC history           Other
    -----------------------------      -----------------------------
    HistInit (histinit)                FAQ
    HistRoot (histroot)                Help (soshelp)
    HistObj  (histobj)
    HistObjFind (histobjfind)
    HistClear (histclear)

### Aliases ###

By default you can reach all the SOS commands by using: _sos [command\_name]_
However the common commands have been aliased so that you don't need the SOS prefix:

    bpmd            -> sos bpmd
    clrstack        -> sos ClrStack
    clrthreads      -> sos Threads
    clru            -> sos U
    createdump      -> sos CreateDump
    dso             -> sos DumpStackObjects
    dumpclass       -> sos DumpClass
    dumpheap        -> sos DumpHeap
    dumpil          -> sos DumpIL
    dumplog         -> sos DumpLog
    dumpmd          -> sos DumpMD
    dumpmodule      -> sos DumpModule
    dumpmt          -> sos DumpMT
    dumpobj         -> sos DumpObj
    dumpstack       -> sos DumpStack     
    eeheap          -> sos EEHeap
    eestack         -> sos EEStack
    gcroot          -> sos GCRoot
    histinit        -> sos HistInit
    histroot        -> sos HistRoot
    histobj         -> sos HistObj
    histobjfind     -> sos HistObjFind
    histclear       -> sos HistClear
    ip2md           -> sos IP2MD
    name2ee         -> sos Name2EE
    pe              -> sos PrintException
    soshelp         -> sos Help

### Debugging core dumps with lldb

It is also possible to debug .NET Core crash dumps using lldb and SOS. In order to do this, you need all of the following:

- The crash dump file. We have a service called "Dumpling" which collects, uploads, and archives crash dump files during all of our CI jobs and official builds.
- On Linux, there is a utility called `createdump` (see [doc](https://github.com/dotnet/coreclr/blob/master/Documentation/botr/xplat-minidump-generation.md#configurationpolicy)) that can be setup to generate core dumps when a managed app throws an unhandled exception or faults.
- To get matching runtime and symbol binaries for the core dump use the symbol downloader CLI extension:
  - Install the [.NET Core 2.1 SDK](https://www.microsoft.com/net/download/).
  - Install the symbol downloader extension: `dotnet tool install -g dotnet-symbol`. Make sure you are not in any project directory with a NuGet.Config that doesn't include nuget.org as a source. 
  - Run `dotnet symbol coredump` to download the runtime binaries and symbols.
  - Check out the coreclr and corefx repositories at the appropriate commit for the appropriate source.
  - For further information see: [dotnet-symbol](https://github.com/dotnet/symstore/blob/master/src/dotnet-symbol/README.md).
- lldb version 3.9. The SOS plugin (i.e. libsosplugin.so) provided is now built for lldb 3.9. In order to install lldb 3.9 just run the following commands:
```
~$ echo "deb http://llvm.org/apt/trusty/ llvm-toolchain-trusty-3.9 main" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/llvm.list
~$ wget -O - http://llvm.org/apt/llvm-snapshot.gpg.key | sudo apt-key add -
~$ sudo apt-get update
~$ sudo apt-get install lldb-3.9
```

Once you have everything listed above, you are ready to start debugging. You need to specify an extra parameter to lldb in order for it to correctly resolve the symbols for libcoreclr.so. Use a command like this:

```
lldb-3.9 -O "settings set target.exec-search-paths <runtime-path>" -o "plugin load <path-to-libsosplugin.so>" --core <core-file-path> <host-path>
```

- `<runtime-path>`: The path containing libcoreclr.so.dbg, as well as the rest of the runtime and framework assemblies.
- `<core-file-path>`: The path to the core dump you are attempting to debug.
- `<host-path>`: The path to the dotnet or corerun executable, potentially in the `<runtime-path>` folder.
- `<path-to-libsosplugin.so>`: The path to libsosplugin.so, should be in the `<runtime-path>` folder.

lldb should start debugging successfully at this point. You should see stack traces with resolved symbols for libcoreclr.so. At this point, you can run `plugin load <libsosplugin.so-path>`, and begin using SOS commands, as above.

##### Example

```
lldb-3.9 -O "settings set target.exec-search-paths /home/parallels/Downloads/System.Drawing.Common.Tests/home/helixbot/dotnetbuild/work/2a74cf82-3018-4e08-9e9a-744bb492869e/Payload/shared/Microsoft.NETCore.App/9.9.9/" -o "plugin load /home/parallels/Downloads/System.Drawing.Common.Tests/home/helixbot/dotnetbuild/work/2a74cf82-3018-4e08-9e9a-744bb492869e/Payload/shared/Microsoft.NETCore.App/9.9.9/libsosplugin.so" --core /home/parallels/Downloads/System.Drawing.Common.Tests/home/helixbot/dotnetbuild/work/2a74cf82-3018-4e08-9e9a-744bb492869e/Work/f6414a62-9b41-4144-baed-756321e3e075/Unzip/core /home/parallels/Downloads/System.Drawing.Common.Tests/home/helixbot/dotnetbuild/work/2a74cf82-3018-4e08-9e9a-744bb492869e/Payload/shared/Microsoft.NETCore.App/9.9.9/dotnet
```
Disabling Managed Attach/Debugging
==================================

The "COMPlus_EnableDiagnostics" environment variable can be used to disable managed debugging. This prevents the various OS artifacts used for debugging like the named pipes and semaphores on Linux/MacOS and shared memory on Windows from being created.

    export COMPlus_EnableDiagnostics=0


Using Visual Studio Code
========================

- Install [Visual Studio Code](https://code.visualstudio.com/)
- Install the [C# Extension](https://marketplace.visualstudio.com/items?itemName=ms-vscode.csharp)
- Open the folder containing the source you want to debug in VS Code
- Open the debug window: `ctrl-shift-D` or click on the button on the left
- Click the gear button at the top to create a launch configuration, select `.NET Core` from the selection dropdown
- In the `.NET Core Launch (console)` configuration do the following
  - delete the `preLaunchTask` property
  - set `program` to the full path to corerun in the test directory
  - set `cwd` to the test directory
  - set `args` to the command line arguments to pass to the test
    - something like: `[ "xunit.console.netcore.exe", "<test>.dll", "-notrait", .... ]`
- Set a breakpoint and launch the debugger, inspecting variables and call stacks will now work

Using Visual Studio
===================

- Install [Visual Studio](https://visualstudio.microsoft.com/vs/)
- Use File->Open Project (not open file) and select the binary you want to use as your host (typically dotnet.exe or corerun.exe)
- Open the project properties for the new project that was just created and set:
  - Arguments: Make this match whatever arguments you would have used at the command-line. For example if you would have run "dotnet.exe exec Foo.dll", then set arguments = "exec Foo.dll"
      (Note: you probably want 'dotnet exec' rather than 'dotnet run' because the run verb is implemented to launch the app in a child-process and the debugger won't be attached to that child process)
  - Working Directory: Make this match whatever you would have used on the command-line
  - Debugger Type: Set this to either 'Managed (CoreCLR)' or 'Native Only' depending on whether you want to debug the C+ or native code respectively.
  - Environment: Add any environment variables you would have added at the command-line. You may also consider adding COMPLUS_ZapDisable=1 and COMPLUS_ReadyToRun=0 which disable NGEN and R2R pre-compilation respectively and allow the JIT to create debuggable code. This will give you a higher quality C# debugging experience inside the runtime framework assemblies, at the cost of somewhat lower app performance.
- For managed debugging, there are some settings in Debug->Options, Debugging->General that might be useful:
  - Uncheck 'Just My Code'. This will allow you debug into the framework libraries.
  - Check 'Enable .NET Framework Source Stepping.' This will configure the debugger to download symbols and source automatically for runtime framework binaries. If you built the framework yourself this may be irrelevant because you already have all the source on your machine but it doesn't hurt.
  - Check 'Suppress JIT optimzation on module load'. This tells the debugger to tell the .NET runtime JIT to generate debuggable code even for modules that may not have been compiled in a 'Debug' configuration by the C# compiler. This code is slower, but it provides much higher fidelity breakpoints, stepping, and local variable access. It is the same difference you see when debugging .NET apps in the 'Debug' project configuration vs. the 'Release' project configuration.