summaryrefslogtreecommitdiff
path: root/Documentation
diff options
context:
space:
mode:
authorBrian Bohe <brianbohe@gmail.com>2019-03-29 23:38:53 (GMT)
committerBruce Forstall <brucefo@microsoft.com>2019-03-29 23:38:53 (GMT)
commit493023e6e1bc03ec04ee4aa9f390e37dc4d0906e (patch)
treea7e0994c783217f0bcbc0fe23a2bbf5517a2b79d /Documentation
parent1df87c785e0e43392abf4bcba56e2bf4d9249fd4 (diff)
downloadcoreclr-493023e6e1bc03ec04ee4aa9f390e37dc4d0906e.zip
coreclr-493023e6e1bc03ec04ee4aa9f390e37dc4d0906e.tar.gz
coreclr-493023e6e1bc03ec04ee4aa9f390e37dc4d0906e.tar.bz2
A new way of tracking variables (#23373)
* Defining VariableLiveRange class * Adding some typedefs to avoid rewriting * Defining VariableLiveDescriptor class * Initializing VariableLiveRange structures before BasicBlock code is being generated * Getting a siVarLoc for variable homes from a given LclVarDsc and stack level * Defining VariableLiveKeeper class * Reporting VariableLiveRanges on changes of variable livenesss or variable homes * Adding USING_VARIABLE_LIVE_RANGE flag to enable disable VariableLiveRange * Send VariableLiveRanges to debugger * Reporting variable homes on prolog * Wrong argument * Miss to change variable homes count before sending them to debugger * Adding dumper of VariableLiveRanges for each blocks and end of code generation * Close all open VaribleLiveRanges on last BasicBlock * Changing order of properties initialization on VariableLiveRange constructor * Type error on assignation * Rephrasing comments, moving dumps and fixing typos * Changing const VARSET_TP* for VARSET_VALARG_TP on args * Variable home was variable location in VariableLiveRange context * Rephrase and rename of VariableLiveKeeper properties * Missing some renames * Adding const where BasicBlock should not be modified * siBeginBlock and siInit have support for debug code for VariableLiveRange and siScope info * Adding USING_VARIABLE_LIVE_RANGE flags on methods definition. * Variable home -> variable location * Renaming and rephrasing names and uses of VariableLiveRange * Moving LiveRangeDumper ctor to class declation * Removing destructors Signed-off-by: Brian Bohe <brianbohe@gmail.com> * Removing blank spaces and reordering functions inside class definition Signed-off-by: Brian Bohe <brianbohe@gmail.com> * Miss to increment the index after refactoring * Logic for keeping the last BasicBlock end IL offset is shared between siScope and VariableLiverange for debug code * Missing to print on debug the last block VariableLiveRanges * Avoid updating VariableLiveRange when unspilling and dying at the same assembly instruction * Rephrasing #ifs and #ifdefs * Calling VariableLiveKeeper in one line * Avoid copying siVarLoc on genSetScopeInfo * Removing unused args from eeSetLVinfo * Changing VariableLiveKeeper ctor * Typo Signed-off-by: Brian Bohe <brianbohe@gmail.com> * Updating VariableLiveDescriptor ctor Signed-off-by: Brian Bohe <brianbohe@gmail.com> * Error on first argument Signed-off-by: Brian Bohe <brianbohe@gmail.com> * Changing reference for pointer Signed-off-by: Brian Bohe <brianbohe@gmail.com> * Renaming assembly offset -> native offset * removing unnecesary comments and asserts Signed-off-by: Brian Bohe <brianbohe@gmail.com> * Update VariableLiveRange dump message Signed-off-by: Brian Bohe <brianbohe@gmail.com> * Moving VariableLiveRanges classes inside VariableLiveKeeper * Wrong flag name * Adding documentation about how we track variables for debug info Signed-off-by: Brian Bohe <brianbohe@gmail.com> * Adding opened issues to doc file Signed-off-by: Brian Bohe <brianbohe@gmail.com> * Changing dump tittle Signed-off-by: Brian Bohe <brianbohe@gmail.com> * Renaming VariableLiveKeeper property Signed-off-by: Brian Bohe <brianbohe@gmail.com> * Update documentation Signed-off-by: Brian Bohe <brianbohe@gmail.com> * Updating comments on flags Signed-off-by: Brian Bohe <brianbohe@gmail.com> * Setting Scope Info as default way of tracking variables for debug info Signed-off-by: Brian Bohe <brianbohe@gmail.com>
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation')
-rw-r--r--Documentation/design-docs/variabletracking.md344
1 files changed, 344 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/design-docs/variabletracking.md b/Documentation/design-docs/variabletracking.md
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..db46291
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/design-docs/variabletracking.md
@@ -0,0 +1,344 @@
+Reporting Variable Location
+===================
+Table of Contents
+-----------------
+
+[Debug Info](#debug-info)
+
+[Context](#context)
+
+[Variable Number](#variable-number)
+
+[Debug Code vs Optimized Code](#debug-code-vs-optimized-code)
+
+[siScope / psiScope Structures](#siscope-psiscope-structure)
+
+[Generating siScope / psiScope info](#siscope-psiscope)
+
+[Variable Live Range Structure](#variable-live-range-structure)
+
+[Generating Variable Live Range](#variable-live-range)
+
+[Turning On Debug Info](#debug-indo-flags)
+
+[Dumps and Debugging Support](#dumps-and-debugging-support)
+
+[Future Extensions and Enhancements](#future-extensions-and-enhancements)
+
+Debug Info
+--------
+
+The debugger expects to receive an array of `VarResultInfo` which indicates:
+
+- IL variable number
+
+- Location
+
+- First native offset this location is valid.
+
+- First native offset this location is no longer valid
+
+There could be more than one per variable.
+There should be no overlap in terms of starting/ending native offsets for the same variable.
+Given a native offset, no two variables should share the same location.
+
+Context
+--------
+
+We generate variables debug info while we generate the assembly intructions of the code. This is happening in `genCodeForBBList()` and `genFnProlog()`.
+
+If we are jitting release code, information about variable liveness will be included in `GenTree`s and `BasicBlock` when `genCodeForBBList` is reached.
+For each `BasicBlock`:
+
+- `bbLiveIn`: alive at the beginning
+
+- `bbLiveOut`: alive at the end
+
+Also each `GenTree` has a mask `gtFlags` indicating will include if a variable:
+
+- is being born
+
+- is becoming dead
+
+- is being spilled
+
+- has been spilled
+
+When generating each instruction, these flags are used to know if we need to start/end tracking a variable or update its location (which means in practice "end and start").
+The blocks set of live variables are also used to start/end variables tracking information.
+
+Once the code is done we know the native offset of every assembly instruction, which is required for the debug info.
+While we are generating code we don't work with native offsets but `emitLocation`s that the `emitter` can generate, and once the code is done we can get the native offset corresponding to each of them.
+
+Variable Number
+--------
+
+If we compile a method and inspect the generated IL we can see there is a "locals" section which holds the local variables of you C# code named with a Vxx pattern.
+When we report debug info to the debugger, we also have to report arguments and special arguments.
+Those are included at the beginning, so if we have three locals named as V00, V01 and V02, two arguments named as arg00, arg01 and one special argument named as sarg00, we would end with these variable numbers.
+
+Variable Name: arg00 arg01 sarg00 V00 V01 V02
+Variable Number: 0 1 2 3 4 5
+
+This correspond to the index in `Compiler::lvaTable` and `VariableLiveKeeeper::m_vlrLiveDsc`.
+
+If any change is applied to this, probably changes on `CordbJITILFrame::ILVariableToNative` are needed.
+
+Debug Code vs Optimized Code
+--------
+
+Variables on debug code:
+- are alive during the whole method
+
+- live in a fixed location on the stack the whole method
+
+- `bbLiveIn` and `bbLiveOut` sets are empty
+
+- there is no flag for spill/unspill variables
+
+Variables on optimized code:
+
+- could change their location during code execution
+
+- could change their liveness during code execution
+
+siScope / psiScope Structures
+--------
+
+#### siScope
+
+This struct is used to represent the ranges where a variable is alive during code generation.
+
+The struct has two fields to denote the native offset where a variable is valid:
+
+- `scStartLoc`: an emitLocation indicating from which instruction
+
+- `scEndLoc`: an emitLocation indicating to which instruction
+
+and more fields to indicate from which variable is this scope.
+
+It doesn't have information about the location of the variable, only the stack level of the variable in the case it was on the stack.
+
+#### psiScope
+
+This struct is used to represent the ranges where a variable is alive during the prolog.
+It holds the same information than siScope with the addition of a way of describing the location.
+It describes the variable location with two registers or a base register and the offset.
+
+Generating siScope / psiScope info
+--------
+
+In order to use Scope Info for tracking variables location, the Flag `USING_SCOPE_INFO` in codegeninterface.h should be defined.
+
+#### For Prolog
+
+We open a `psiScope` for every parameter indicating its location at the beginning of the prolog. We then close them all at the end of the prolog.
+
+#### For Method Code
+
+We start generating code for every `BasicBlock`:
+
+- checking at the beginning of each one if there is a variable which does not have an open siScope and has a `varScope` with an starting IL offset lower or equal to the beginning of the block.
+
+- closing a siScope if a variable is last used.
+
+and we close all the open `siScope`s when the last block is reached.
+
+##### Reporting Information
+
+Once the code for the block and each of the `BasicBlock` is done, `genSetScopeInfo()` is called.
+In the case of having the flag `USING_SCOPE_INFO`,
+
+All the `psiScope` list is iterated filling the debug info structure.
+Then the list of `siScope` created is iterated, using the `LclVarDsc` class to get the location of the variable, which would hold the description of the last position it has.
+This is not a problem for debug code because variables live in a fixed location the whole method.
+
+This is done in `CodeGen::genSetScopeInfoUsingsiScope()`
+
+Variable Live Range Structure
+--------
+
+### VariableLiveRange
+
+This class is used to represent an uninterruptible portion of variable live in one location.
+Owns two emitLocations indicating the first instructions that make it valid and invalid respectively.
+It also has the location of the variable in this range, which is stored at the moment of being created.
+
+To save space, we save the ending emitLocation only when the variable is being moved or its liveness change, which could happen many blocks after it was being born.
+This means a `VariableLiveRange` native offsets range could be longer than a `BasicBlock`.
+
+### VariableLiveDescriptor
+
+This class is used to represent the liveness of a variable.
+It has a list of `VariableLiveRange`s and common operations to update the variable liveness.
+
+### VariableLiveKeeper
+
+It holds an array of `VariableLiveDescriptor`s, one per variable that is being tracked.
+The index of each variable inside this array is the same as in `Compiler::lvaTable`.
+
+We could have `VariableLiveDescriptor` inside each LclVarDsc or an array of `VariableLiveDescriptor` inside `Compiler`, but the intention is to move code out of `Compiler` and not increase it.
+
+Generating Variable Live Range
+--------
+
+In order to use Variable Live Range for tracking variables location, the Flag `USING_VARIABLE_LIVE_RANGE` in codegeninterface.h should be defined.
+
+### For optimized code
+
+In `genCodeForBBList()`, we start generating code for each block dealing with some cases.
+
+On `BasicBlock` boundaries:
+
+- `BasicBlock`s beginning:
+
+ - If a variable has an open `VariableLiveRange` but the location is different than what is expected to be in this block we update it (close the existing one and create another).
+ This could happen because a variable could be in the `bbLiveOut` of a block and in the `BasicBlock`s `bbLiveOut` of the next one, but that doesn't mean that the execution thread would go from one immediately to the next one.
+ For this kind of cases another block that moves the variable from its original to the expected position is created.
+ This is handled in `LinearScan::recordVarLocationsAtStartOfBB(BasicBlock* bb)`.
+
+ - If a variable doesn't have an open `VariableLiveRange` and is in `bbLiveIn`, we open one.
+ This is done in `genUpdateLife` immediately after the the previous method is called.
+
+ - If a variable has an open `VariableLiveRange` and is not in `bbLiveIn`, we close it.
+ This is handled in `genUpdateLife` too.
+
+- last `BasicBlock`s ending:
+
+ - We close every open `VariableLiveRange`.
+ This is handled in `genCodeForBBList` when iterating the blocks, after the code for each block is done.
+
+For each instruction in `BasicBlock`:
+- a `VariableLiveRange` is opened for each variable that is being born and is not becoming dead at the same instruction
+ Handled in `TreeLifeUpdater::UpdateLifeVar(GenTree* tree)`.
+
+- a `VariableLiveRange` is closed and another one opened for each variable that is being spilled, unspilled or copied and is not dying at the same instruction.
+ Spills and copies are handled in `TreeLifeUpdater::UpdateLifeVar(GenTree* tree)`, unspills in `CodeGen::genUnspillRegIfNeeded(GenTree* tree)`.
+
+- a `VariableLiveRange` is closed for each variable that is dying.
+ Handled in `TreeLifeUpdater::UpdateLifeVar(GenTree* tree)`
+
+We are not reporting the cases where a variable liveness is being modified and also becoming dead for some reasons:
+- We are using inclusive native offset for the beginning and exclusive native offset for the ending of a VariableLiveRange.
+ This property is used when the debugger is looking the location of a variable in `FindNativeInfoInILVariableArray`.
+ So a `VariableLiveRange` with exactly the same native offset for both would represent an empty live range and will not been found by the debugger.
+
+- Each C# line commonly end being more than one assembly instruction, if it exist on the assembly code.
+ When you put a breakpoint in one C# line, you are stoping at the first of this group of instruction.
+ A `VariableLiveRange` of just on assembly instruction seems unlikely to affect user debugging experience.
+
+- Less memory used to save VariabeLiveRanges
+
+- We are just changing the variable location.
+ We are not changing the variable value and the "old" variable location is not being modified.
+ So during that only assembly instruction, both `VariableLiveRange`s are valid, and we can increase the previous `VariableLiveRange` ending native offset a few bytes (we are not doing that now) and avoid creating a new `VariableLiveRange`.
+
+
+### For debug code
+
+As no flag is being added `GenTree` that we can consume and no variable is included in `bbLiveIn` or `bbLiveOut`, we are currently reporting a variable as being born the same way is done for siScope info in `siBeginBlock` each time before `BasicBlock`s code is generated.
+The death of a variable is handled at the end of the last `BasicBlock` as variable live during the whole method.
+
+### Reporting Information
+
+We just iterate throught all the `VariableLiveRange`s of all the variables that are tracked in `CodeGen::genSetScopeInfoUsingVariableRanges()`.
+
+Turning On Debug Info
+--------
+
+There is a flag to turn on each of this ways of tracking variable debug info:
+- : for `siScope` and `psiScope`
+
+- : for `VariableLiveRange`
+
+In case only one of them is defined, that one will be sent to the debugger.
+If both are defined, Scope info is sent to the debugger.
+If none is defined, no info is sent to the debugger.
+
+Both flags can be found at the beginnig of `codegeninterface.h`
+
+Dumps and Debugging Support
+--------
+
+#### Variable Live Ranges activity during a BasicBlock
+
+If we have the flag for `VariableLiveRange`s we would get on the jitdump a verbose message after each `BasicBlock` is done indicating the changes for each variable.
+For example:
+
+```
+////////////////////////////////////////
+////////////////////////////////////////
+Var History Dump for Block 44
+Var 1:
+[esi [ (G_M8533_IG29,ins#2,ofs#3), NON_CLOSED_RANGE ]; ]
+Var 12:
+[ebp[-44] (1 slot) [ (G_M8533_IG29,ins#2,ofs#3), NON_CLOSED_RANGE ]; ]
+Var 17:
+[ebp[-56] (1 slot) [ (G_M8533_IG32,ins#2,ofs#7), (G_M8533_IG33,ins#10,ofs#32) ]; edx [ (G_M8533_IG33,ins#10,ofs#32), (G_M8533_IG33,ins#10,ofs#32) ]; ]
+////////////////////////////////////////
+////////////////////////////////////////
+```
+
+indicating that:
+
+- Variable with index number 1 is living in register esi since instruction group 29 and it is still living there at the end of the block.
+
+- Variable with index number 12 in a similar situation as 1 but living on the stack.
+
+- Variable with index number 17 was living on the stack since instruction group 32 and it was unspill on ig 33, which is the instruction group of this BasicBlock, and it isn't alive at the end of the block.
+
+- Those are the only variables that are being tracked in this method and were alive during part or the whole method.
+
+Each `VariableLiveRange` is dumped as:
+```
+Location [ starting_emit_location, ending_emit_location )
+```
+and a list of them for a variable.
+
+Something to consider is that as we don't have the final native offsets while we are generating code, we are just dumping `emitLocation`s.
+
+#### All the Variable Live Ranges
+
+We also get all the `VariableLiveRange`s dumped for all the variables once the code for the whole method is done with the native offsets in place of `emitLocation`s.
+
+The information follows the same pattern as before.
+
+```
+////////////////////////////////////////
+////////////////////////////////////////
+PRINTING REGISTER LIVE RANGES:
+[esi [3C , 270 )esi [275 , 2BE )esi [2DA , 390 )]
+IL Var Num 12:
+[ebp[-44] (1 slot) [200 , 270 )ebp[-44] (1 slot) [275 , 28A )ebp[-44] (1 slot) [292 , 2BE )ebp[-44] (1 slot) [2DA , 401 )ebp[-44] (1 slot) [406 , 449 )ebp[-44] (1 slot) [465 , 468 )edi [468 , 468 )]
+IL Var Num 17:
+[ebp[-56] (1 slot) [331 , 373 )edx [373 , 373 )]
+////////////////////////////////////////
+////////////////////////////////////////
+```
+
+#### Debug Info sent to the debugger
+
+The information sent to the debugger is dumped to as:
+```
+*************** In genSetScopeInfo()
+VarLocInfo count is 95
+*************** Variable debug info
+3 live ranges
+ 0( UNKNOWN) : From 00000000h to 0000001Ah, in ecx
+ 1( UNKNOWN) : From 0000003Ch to 00000270h, in esi
+ 1( UNKNOWN) : From 00000275h to 000002BEh, in esi
+```
+
+Future Extensions and Enhancements
+--------
+
+There are many things we can do to improve optimized debugging:
+
+- Inline functions: If you crash inside one, you get no info of your variables.
+ Currently we don't have the IL offset of them.
+ And this is broadly used to improve code performance.
+
+- [Promoted structs](https://github.com/dotnet/coreclr/issues/23542): There is no debug support for fields of promoted structs, we just report the struct itself.
+
+- [Reduce space used for VariableLiveDescriptor](https://github.com/dotnet/coreclr/issues/23544): we are currently using a `jitstd::list`, which is a double linked list.
+ We could use a simple single linked list with push_back(), head(), tail(), size() operations and an iterator and we would be saving memory.