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<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
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</div>
<div class="sect1">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="MultiArray"></a>MultiArray Concept</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="toc"><dl class="toc">
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="MultiArray.html#idp423723312">Notation</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="MultiArray.html#idp423743200">Associated Types</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="MultiArray.html#idp423803888">Valid expressions</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="MultiArray.html#idp423899600">Complexity guarantees</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="MultiArray.html#idp423902496">Invariants</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="MultiArray.html#view_types">Associated Types for Views</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="MultiArray.html#idp424065328">Models</a></span></dt>
</dl></div>
<p>The MultiArray
concept defines an interface to hierarchically nested
containers.  It specifies operations for accessing elements,
traversing containers, and creating views
of array data.
MultiArray defines
a flexible memory model that accomodates
a variety of data layouts.
</p>
<p>
At each level (or dimension) of a MultiArray's
container hierarchy lie a set of ordered containers, each of which
contains the same number and type of values. The depth of this
container hierarchy is the MultiArray's <span class="emphasis"><em>dimensionality</em></span>. 
MultiArray is recursively defined; the
containers at each level of the container hierarchy model
MultiArray as well. While each dimension of a MultiArray
has its own size, the list of sizes for all dimensions 
defines the <span class="emphasis"><em>shape</em></span> of the entire MultiArray.
At the base of this hierarchy lie 1-dimensional
MultiArrays.  Their values are the contained
objects of interest and not part of the container hierarchy. These are
the MultiArray's elements.
</p>
<p>
Like other container concepts, MultiArray exports
iterators to traverse its values. In addition, values can be
addressed directly using the familiar bracket notation.
</p>
<p>
MultiArray also specifies
routines for creating
specialized views. A <span class="emphasis"><em>view</em></span> lets you treat a 
subset of the underlying
elements in a MultiArray as though it were a separate
MultiArray. Since a view refers to the same underlying elements,
changes made to a view's elements will be reflected in the original
MultiArray. For
example, given a 3-dimensional "cube" of elements, a 2-dimensional
slice can be viewed as if it were an independent
MultiArray.

Views are created using <code class="literal">index_gen</code> and
<code class="literal">index_range</code> objects.
<code class="literal">index_range</code>s denote elements from a certain
dimension that are to be included in a
view. <code class="literal">index_gen</code> aggregates range data and performs
bookkeeping to determine the view type to be returned.

MultiArray's <code class="literal">operator[]</code>
 must be passed the result
of <code class="literal">N</code> chained calls to 
<code class="literal">index_gen::operator[]</code>, i.e.

</p>
<pre class="programlisting">indices[a0][a1]...[aN];
</pre>
<p>

where <code class="literal">N</code> is the 
MultiArray's dimensionality and
<code class="literal">indices</code> an object of type <code class="literal">index_gen</code>.

The view type is dependent upon the number of degenerate dimensions
specified to <code class="literal">index_gen</code>.  A degenerate dimension
occurs when a single-index is specified to
<code class="literal">index_gen</code> for a certain dimension.  For example, if
<code class="literal">indices</code> is an object of type
<code class="literal">index_gen</code>, then the following example:

</p>
<pre class="programlisting">indices[index_range(0,5)][2][index_range(0,4)];
</pre>
<p>

has a degenerate second dimension.  The view generated from the above
specification will have 2 dimensions with shape <code class="literal">5 x 4</code>.
If the "<code class="literal">2</code>" above were replaced with
another <code class="literal">index_range</code> object, for example:

</p>
<pre class="programlisting">indices[index_range(0,5)][index_range(0,2)][index_range(0,4)];
</pre>
<p>

then the view would have 3 dimensions.</p>
<p>
MultiArray exports
information regarding the memory
layout of its contained elements. Its memory model for elements is
completely defined by 4 properties: the origin, shape, index bases,
and strides.  The origin is the address in memory of the element
accessed as <code class="literal">a[0][0]...[0]</code>, where
<code class="literal">a</code> is a MultiArray. The shape is a list of numbers
specifying the size of containers at each dimension.  For example, the
first extent is the size of the outermost container, the second extent
is the size of its subcontainers, and so on. The index bases are a
list of signed values specifying the index of the first value in a
container. All containers at the same dimension share the same index
base.  Note that since positive index bases are
possible, the origin need not exist in order to determine the location
in memory of the MultiArray's elements.
  The strides determine how index values are mapped to memory offsets. 
They accomodate a
number of possible element layouts.  For example, the elements of a 2
dimensional array can be stored by row (i.e., the elements of each row
are stored contiguously) or by column (i.e., the elements of each
column are stored contiguously).
</p>
<p>
Two concept checking classes for the MultiArray concepts
(<code class="literal">ConstMultiArrayConcept</code> and
<code class="literal">MutableMultiArrayConcept</code>) are in the namespace
<code class="literal">boost::multi_array_concepts</code> in
<code class="literal">&lt;boost/multi_array/concept_checks.hpp&gt;</code>.
</p>
<div class="sect2">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="idp423723312"></a>Notation</h3></div></div></div>
<p>What follows are the descriptions of symbols that will be used
to describe the MultiArray interface.</p>
<div class="table">
<a name="idp423724352"></a><p class="title"><b>Table&#160;27.1.&#160;Notation</b></p>
<div class="table-contents"><table class="table" summary="Notation">
<colgroup>
<col>
<col>
</colgroup>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">A</code></td>
<td>A type that is a model of MultiArray
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">a,b</code></td>
<td>Objects of type <code class="literal">A</code>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">NumDims</code></td>
<td>The numeric dimension parameter associated with
<code class="literal">A</code>.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">Dims</code></td>
<td>Some numeric dimension parameter such that 
<code class="literal">0&lt;Dims&lt;NumDims</code>.
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">indices</code></td>
<td>An object created by some number of chained calls
to <code class="literal">index_gen::operator[](index_range)</code>.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">index_list</code></td>
<td>An object whose type models
<a href="../../utility/Collection.html" target="_top">Collection</a>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">idx</code></td>
<td>A signed integral value.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">tmp</code></td>
<td>An object of type
	      <code class="literal">boost::array&lt;index,NumDims&gt;</code>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table></div>
</div>
<br class="table-break">
</div>
<div class="sect2">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="idp423743200"></a>Associated Types</h3></div></div></div>
<p>
</p>
<div class="table">
<a name="idp423744128"></a><p class="title"><b>Table&#160;27.2.&#160;Associated Types</b></p>
<div class="table-contents"><table class="table" summary="Associated Types">
<colgroup>
<col>
<col>
</colgroup>
<thead><tr>
<th>Type</th>
<th>Description</th>
</tr></thead>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">value_type</code></td>
<td>This is the value type of the container.
  If <code class="literal">NumDims == 1</code>, then this is
<code class="literal">element</code>. Otherwise, this is the value type of the
immediately nested containers.
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<code class="literal">reference</code>
</td>
<td>
This is the reference type of the contained value. 
If <code class="literal">NumDims == 1</code>, then this is 
<code class="literal">element&amp;</code>. Otherwise, this is the same type as
<code class="literal">template subarray&lt;NumDims-1&gt;::type</code>.
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<code class="literal">const_reference</code>
</td>
<td>
This is the const reference type of the contained value.
If <code class="literal">NumDims == 1</code>, then this is  
<code class="literal">const element&amp;</code>. Otherwise, this is the same
type as
<code class="literal">template const_subarray&lt;NumDims-1&gt;::type</code>.
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<code class="literal">size_type</code>
</td>
<td>
This is an unsigned integral type.  It is primarily used to specify array shape.
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<code class="literal">difference_type</code>
</td>
<td>
This is a signed integral type used to represent the distance between two
iterators. It is the same type as
<code class="literal">std::iterator_traits&lt;iterator&gt;::difference_type</code>.
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">iterator</code></td>
<td>
This is an iterator over the values of <code class="literal">A</code>.
If <code class="literal">NumDims == 1</code>, then it models 
<a href="http://www.boost.org/doc/html/RandomAccessIterator.html" target="_top">
<code class="literal">Random Access Iterator</code></a>. 
Otherwise it models 
<a href="./iterator_categories.html#concept_RandomAccessTraversalIterator" target="_top">
Random Access Traversal Iterator</a>,
<a href="./iterator_categories.html#concept_ReadableIterator" target="_top">
Readable Iterator</a>,
<a href="./iterator_categories.html#concept_WritableIterator" target="_top">
Writable Iterator</a>, and 
<a href="http://www.boost.org/doc/html/OutputIterator.html" target="_top">
<code class="literal">Output Iterator</code></a>.
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<code class="literal">const_iterator</code>
</td>
<td>
This is the const iterator over the values of <code class="literal">A</code>.
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<code class="literal">reverse_iterator</code>
</td>
<td>
This is the reversed iterator, used to iterate backwards over the values of 
<code class="literal">A</code>.
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<code class="literal">const_reverse_iterator</code>
</td>
<td>
This is the reversed const iterator.
<code class="literal">A</code>.
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<code class="literal">element</code>
</td>
<td>
This is the type of objects stored at the base of the
hierarchy of MultiArrays. It is the same as
<code class="literal">template subarray&lt;1&gt;::value_type</code>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<code class="literal">index</code>
</td>
<td>
This is a signed integral type used for indexing into <code class="literal">A</code>. It 
is also used to represent strides and index bases.
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<code class="literal">index_gen</code>
</td>
<td>
This type is used to create a tuple of <code class="literal">index_range</code>s 
passed to <code class="literal">operator[]</code> to create
an <code class="literal">array_view&lt;Dims&gt;::type</code> object.
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<code class="literal">index_range</code>
</td>
<td>
This type specifies a range of indices over some dimension of a
MultiArray.  This range will be visible through an 
<code class="literal">array_view&lt;Dims&gt;::type</code> object.
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<code class="literal">template subarray&lt;Dims&gt;::type</code>
</td>
<td>
This is subarray type with <code class="literal">Dims</code> dimensions.
It is the reference type of the <code class="literal">(NumDims - Dims)</code>
dimension of <code class="literal">A</code> and also models
MultiArray.
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<code class="literal">template const_subarray&lt;Dims&gt;::type</code>
</td>
<td>
This is the const subarray type.
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<code class="literal">template array_view&lt;Dims&gt;::type</code>
</td>
<td>
This is the view type with <code class="literal">Dims</code> dimensions.  It is
returned by calling <code class="literal">operator[](<code class="literal">indices</code>)</code>.
It models MultiArray.
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<code class="literal">template
const_array_view&lt;Dims&gt;::type</code>
</td>
<td>
This is the const view type with <code class="literal">Dims</code> dimensions.
</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table></div>
</div>
<br class="table-break">
</div>
<div class="sect2">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="idp423803888"></a>Valid expressions</h3></div></div></div>
<div class="table">
<a name="idp423804432"></a><p class="title"><b>Table&#160;27.3.&#160;Valid Expressions</b></p>
<div class="table-contents"><table class="table" summary="Valid Expressions">
<colgroup>
<col>
<col>
<col>
</colgroup>
<thead><tr>
<th>Expression</th>
<th>Return type</th>
<th>Semantics</th>
</tr></thead>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">A::dimensionality</code></td>
<td><code class="literal">size_type</code></td>
<td>This compile-time constant represents the number of
dimensions of the array (note that 
<code class="literal">A::dimensionality == NumDims</code>).</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">a.shape()</code></td>
<td><code class="literal">const size_type*</code></td>
<td>
This returns a list of <code class="literal">NumDims</code> elements specifying the
extent of each array dimension.
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">a.strides()</code></td>
<td><code class="literal">const index*</code></td>
<td>
This returns a list of <code class="literal">NumDims</code> elements specifying the
stride associated with each array dimension. When accessing values,
strides is used to calculate an element's location in memory.
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">a.index_bases()</code></td>
<td><code class="literal">const index*</code></td>
<td>
This returns a list of <code class="literal">NumDims</code> elements specifying the
numeric index of the first element for each array dimension.
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">a.origin()</code></td>
<td>
<code class="literal">element*</code> if <code class="literal">a</code> is mutable,
<code class="literal">const element*</code> otherwise.
</td>
<td>
This returns the address of the element accessed by the expression
<code class="literal">a[0][0]...[0].</code>. If the index bases are positive,
this element won't exist, but the address can still be used to locate
a valid element given its indices.
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">a.num_dimensions()</code></td>
<td><code class="literal">size_type</code></td>
<td>This returns the number of dimensions of the array
(note that <code class="literal">a.num_dimensions() == NumDims</code>).</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">a.num_elements()</code></td>
<td><code class="literal">size_type</code></td>
<td>This returns the number of elements contained
in the array. It is equivalent to the following code:
<pre class="programlisting">
std::accumulate(a.shape(),a.shape+a.num_dimensions(),
    size_type(1),std::multiplies&lt;size_type&gt;());
</pre>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">a.size()</code></td>
<td><code class="literal">size_type</code></td>
<td>
This returns the number of values contained in
<code class="literal">a</code>. It is equivalent to <code class="literal">a.shape()[0];</code>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">a(index_list)</code></td>
<td>
<code class="literal">element&amp;</code>;  if <code class="literal">a</code> is mutable,
<code class="literal">const element&amp;</code> otherwise.
            </td>
<td>
This expression accesses a specific element of
<code class="literal">a</code>.<code class="literal">index_list</code> is the unique set
of indices that address the element returned.  It is 
equivalent to the following code (disregarding intermediate temporaries):
<pre class="programlisting">
    // multiply indices by strides
    std::transform(index_list.begin(), index_list.end(),
      a.strides(), tmp.begin(), std::multiplies&lt;index&gt;()),

    // add the sum of the products to the origin
    *std::accumulate(tmp.begin(), tmp.end(), a.origin());
</pre>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">a.begin()</code></td>
<td>
<code class="literal">iterator</code> if <code class="literal">a</code> is mutable,
<code class="literal">const_iterator</code> otherwise.
            </td>
<td>This returns an iterator pointing to the beginning of
<code class="literal">a</code>.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">a.end()</code></td>
<td>
<code class="literal">iterator</code> if <code class="literal">a</code> is mutable,
<code class="literal">const_iterator</code> otherwise.
            </td>
<td>This returns an iterator pointing to the end of
<code class="literal">a</code>.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">a.rbegin()</code></td>
<td>
<code class="literal">reverse_iterator</code> if <code class="literal">a</code> is mutable, 
<code class="literal">const_reverse_iterator</code> otherwise.
            </td>
<td>This returns a reverse iterator pointing to the
beginning of <code class="literal">a</code> reversed.
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">a.rend()</code></td>
<td>
<code class="literal">reverse_iterator</code> if <code class="literal">a</code> is mutable, 
<code class="literal">const_reverse_iterator</code> otherwise.
</td>
<td>
This returns a reverse iterator pointing to the end of <code class="literal">a</code>
reversed.
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">a[idx]</code></td>
<td>
<code class="literal">reference</code> if <code class="literal">a</code> is mutable,
<code class="literal">const_reference</code> otherwise.
            </td>
<td>
This returns a reference type that is bound to the index
<code class="literal">idx</code> value of <code class="literal">a</code>.  Note that if
<code class="literal">i</code> is the index base for this dimension, the above
expression returns the <code class="literal">(idx-i)</code>th element (counting
from zero).  The expression is equivalent to
<code class="literal">*(a.begin()+idx-a.index_bases()[0]);</code>.
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">a[indices]</code></td>
<td>
<code class="literal">array_view&lt;Dims&gt;::type</code> if
<code class="literal">a</code> is mutable,
<code class="literal">const_array_view&lt;Dims&gt;::type</code> otherwise.
            </td>
<td>
This expression generates a view of the array determined by the
<code class="literal">index_range</code> and <code class="literal">index</code> values
 used to construct <code class="literal">indices</code>.
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">a == b</code></td>
<td>bool</td>
<td>This performs a lexicographical comparison of the
values of <code class="literal">a</code> and <code class="literal">b</code>.  The element
type must model <a href="http://www.sgi.com/tech/stl/EqualityComparable.html" target="_top">EqualityComparable</a> for this
expression to be valid.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">a &lt; b</code></td>
<td>bool</td>
<td>This performs a lexicographical comparison of the
values of <code class="literal">a</code> and <code class="literal">b</code>.  The element
type must model <a href="http://www.sgi.com/tech/stl/LessThanComparable.html" target="_top">LessThanComparable</a> for this
expression to be valid.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">a &lt;= b</code></td>
<td>bool</td>
<td>This performs a lexicographical comparison of the
values of <code class="literal">a</code> and <code class="literal">b</code>.  The element
type must model <a href="http://www.sgi.com/tech/stl/EqualityComparable.html" target="_top">EqualityComparable</a> and
<a href="http://www.sgi.com/tech/stl/LessThanComparable.html" target="_top">LessThanComparable</a> for this
expression to be valid.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">a &gt; b</code></td>
<td>bool</td>
<td>This performs a lexicographical comparison of the
values of <code class="literal">a</code> and <code class="literal">b</code>.  The element
type must model <a href="http://www.sgi.com/tech/stl/EqualityComparable.html" target="_top">EqualityComparable</a> and 
<a href="http://www.sgi.com/tech/stl/LessThanComparable.html" target="_top">LessThanComparable</a> for this
expression to be valid.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">a &gt;= b</code></td>
<td>bool</td>
<td>This performs a lexicographical comparison of the
values of <code class="literal">a</code> and <code class="literal">b</code>.  The element
type must model <a href="http://www.sgi.com/tech/stl/LessThanComparable.html" target="_top">LessThanComparable</a> for this
expression to be valid.</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table></div>
</div>
<br class="table-break">
</div>
<div class="sect2">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="idp423899600"></a>Complexity guarantees</h3></div></div></div>
<code class="literal">begin()</code> and <code class="literal">end()</code> execute in amortized
constant time.
<code class="literal">size()</code> executes in at most linear time in the 
MultiArray's size. 
</div>
<div class="sect2">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="idp423902496"></a>Invariants</h3></div></div></div>
<div class="table">
<a name="idp423903168"></a><p class="title"><b>Table&#160;27.4.&#160;Invariants</b></p>
<div class="table-contents"><table class="table" summary="Invariants">
<colgroup>
<col>
<col>
</colgroup>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td>Valid range</td>
<td>
<code class="literal">[a.begin(),a.end())</code> is a valid range.
            </td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Range size</td>
<td>
<code class="literal">a.size() == std::distance(a.begin(),a.end());</code>.
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Completeness</td>
<td>
Iteration through the range 
<code class="literal">[a.begin(),a.end())</code> will traverse across every
<code class="literal">value_type</code> of <code class="literal">a</code>.
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Accessor Equivalence</td>
<td>
Calling <code class="literal">a[a1][a2]...[aN]</code> where <code class="literal">N==NumDims</code>
yields the same result as calling 
<code class="literal">a(index_list)</code>, where <code class="literal">index_list</code>
is a <a href="../../utility/Collection.html" target="_top">Collection</a> containing the values <code class="literal">a1...aN</code>.
</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table></div>
</div>
<br class="table-break">
</div>
<div class="sect2">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="view_types"></a>Associated Types for Views</h3></div></div></div>
<div class="toc"><dl class="toc">
<dt><span class="sect3"><a href="MultiArray.html#index_range"><code class="literal">index_range</code></a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect3"><a href="MultiArray.html#index_gen"><code class="literal">index_gen</code></a></span></dt>
</dl></div>
<p>The following MultiArray  associated 
types define the interface for creating views of existing
MultiArrays. Their interfaces and roles in the
concept are described below.</p>
<div class="sect3">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="index_range"></a><code class="literal">index_range</code>
</h4></div></div></div>
<p><code class="literal">index_range</code> objects represent half-open
strided intervals.  They are aggregated (using an
<code class="literal">index_gen</code> object) and passed to 
a MultiArray's <code class="literal">operator[]</code>
to create an array view. When creating a view, 
each <code class="literal">index_range</code> denotes a range of
valid indices along one dimension of a MultiArray.
Elements that are accessed through the set of ranges specified will be 
included in the constructed view. In some cases, an
<code class="literal">index_range</code> is created without specifying start
or finish values.  In those cases, the object is interpreted to
start at the beginning of a MultiArray dimension
and end at its end.</p>
<p>
<code class="literal">index_range</code> objects can be constructed and modified 
several ways in order to allow convenient and clear expression of a
range of indices.  To specify ranges, <code class="literal">index_range</code>
supports a set of constructors, mutating member functions, and a novel 
specification involving inequality operators.  Using inequality
operators,  a half open range [5,10) can be specified as follows:
</p>
<pre class="programlisting">5 &lt;= index_range() &lt; 10;</pre>
<p> or
</p>
<pre class="programlisting">4 &lt; index_range() &lt;= 9;</pre>
<p> and so on.

The following describes the
<code class="literal">index_range</code> interface.
</p>
<div class="table">
<a name="idp423929488"></a><p class="title"><b>Table&#160;27.5.&#160;Notation</b></p>
<div class="table-contents"><table class="table" summary="Notation">
<colgroup>
<col>
<col>
</colgroup>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">i</code></td>
<td>An object of type <code class="literal">index_range</code>.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">idx,idx1,idx2,idx3</code></td>
<td>Objects of type <code class="literal">index</code>.</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table></div>
</div>
<br class="table-break"><div class="table">
<a name="idp423935872"></a><p class="title"><b>Table&#160;27.6.&#160;Associated Types</b></p>
<div class="table-contents"><table class="table" summary="Associated Types">
<colgroup>
<col>
<col>
</colgroup>
<thead><tr>
<th>Type</th>
<th>Description</th>
</tr></thead>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">index</code></td>
<td>This is a signed integral type. It is used to
specify the start, finish, and stride values.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">size_type</code></td>
<td>This is an unsigned integral type. It is used to
report the size of the range an <code class="literal">index_range</code> 
represents.</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table></div>
</div>
<br class="table-break"><div class="table">
<a name="idp423943248"></a><p class="title"><b>Table&#160;27.7.&#160;Valid Expressions</b></p>
<div class="table-contents"><table class="table" summary="Valid Expressions">
<colgroup>
<col>
<col>
<col>
</colgroup>
<thead><tr>
<th>Expression</th>
<th>Return type</th>
<th>Semantics</th>
</tr></thead>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">index_range(idx1,idx2,idx3)</code></td>
<td><code class="literal">index_range</code></td>
<td>This constructs an <code class="literal">index_range</code>
	    representing the interval <code class="literal">[idx1,idx2)</code>
 with stride <code class="literal">idx3</code>.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">index_range(idx1,idx2)</code></td>
<td><code class="literal">index_range</code></td>
<td>This constructs an <code class="literal">index_range</code>
	    representing the interval <code class="literal">[idx1,idx2)</code>
 with unit stride. It is equivalent to
	    <code class="literal">index_range(idx1,idx2,1)</code>.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">index_range()</code></td>
<td><code class="literal">index_range</code></td>
<td>This construct an <code class="literal">index_range</code>
with unspecified start and finish values.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">i.start(idx1)</code></td>
<td><code class="literal">index&amp;</code></td>
<td>This sets the start index of <code class="literal">i</code> to
	    <code class="literal">idx</code>.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">i.finish(idx)</code></td>
<td><code class="literal">index&amp;</code></td>
<td>This sets the finish index of <code class="literal">i</code> to 
            <code class="literal">idx</code>.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">i.stride(idx)</code></td>
<td><code class="literal">index&amp;</code></td>
<td>This sets the stride length of <code class="literal">i</code> to
            <code class="literal">idx</code>.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">i.start()</code></td>
<td><code class="literal">index</code></td>
<td>This returns the start index of <code class="literal">i</code>.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">i.finish()</code></td>
<td><code class="literal">index</code></td>
<td>This returns the finish index of <code class="literal">i</code>.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">i.stride()</code></td>
<td><code class="literal">index</code></td>
<td>This returns the stride length of <code class="literal">i</code>.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">i.get_start(idx)</code></td>
<td><code class="literal">index</code></td>
<td>If <code class="literal">i</code> specifies a start
value, this is equivalent to <code class="literal">i.start()</code>. Otherwise it
returns <code class="literal">idx</code>.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">i.get_finish(idx)</code></td>
<td><code class="literal">index</code></td>
<td>If <code class="literal">i</code> specifies a finish
value, this is equivalent to <code class="literal">i.finish()</code>. Otherwise it
returns <code class="literal">idx</code>.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">i.size(idx)</code></td>
<td><code class="literal">size_type</code></td>
<td>If <code class="literal">i</code> specifies a both finish and
start values, this is equivalent to
<code class="literal">(i.finish()-i.start())/i.stride()</code>. Otherwise it
returns <code class="literal">idx</code>.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">i &lt; idx</code></td>
<td><code class="literal">index</code></td>
<td>This is another syntax for specifying the finish
value. This notation does not include 
<code class="literal">idx</code> in the range of valid indices. It is equivalent to 
<code class="literal">index_range(r.start(), idx, r.stride())</code>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">i &lt;= idx</code></td>
<td><code class="literal">index</code></td>
<td>This is another syntax for specifying the finish
value. This notation includes 
<code class="literal">idx</code> in the range of valid indices. It is equivalent to 
<code class="literal">index_range(r.start(), idx + 1, r.stride())</code>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">idx &lt; i</code></td>
<td><code class="literal">index</code></td>
<td>This is another syntax for specifying the start
value. This notation does not include 
<code class="literal">idx</code> in the range of valid indices. It is equivalent to 
<code class="literal">index_range(idx + 1, i.finish(), i.stride())</code>.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">idx &lt;= i</code></td>
<td><code class="literal">index</code></td>
<td>This is another syntax for specifying the start
value. This notation includes
<code class="literal">idx1</code> in the range of valid indices. It is equivalent to 
<code class="literal">index_range(idx, i.finish(), i.stride())</code>.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">i + idx</code></td>
<td><code class="literal">index</code></td>
<td>This expression shifts the start and finish values
of <code class="literal">i</code> up by <code class="literal">idx</code>. It is equivalent to 
<code class="literal">index_range(r.start()+idx1, r.finish()+idx, r.stride())</code>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">i - idx</code></td>
<td><code class="literal">index</code></td>
<td>This expression shifts the start and finish values
of <code class="literal">i</code> up by <code class="literal">idx</code>. It is equivalent to 
<code class="literal">index_range(r.start()-idx1, r.finish()-idx, r.stride())</code>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table></div>
</div>
<br class="table-break">
</div>
<div class="sect3">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="index_gen"></a><code class="literal">index_gen</code>
</h4></div></div></div>
<p> <code class="literal">index_gen</code> aggregates 
<code class="literal">index_range</code> objects in order to specify view
parameters.  Chained calls to <code class="literal">operator[]</code> store
range and dimension information used to 
instantiate a new view into a MultiArray.
</p>
<div class="table">
<a name="idp424022240"></a><p class="title"><b>Table&#160;27.8.&#160;Notation</b></p>
<div class="table-contents"><table class="table" summary="Notation">
<colgroup>
<col>
<col>
</colgroup>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">Dims,Ranges</code></td>
<td>Unsigned integral values.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">x</code></td>
<td>An object of type 
<code class="literal">template gen_type&lt;Dims,Ranges&gt;::type</code>.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">i</code></td>
<td>An object of type 
<code class="literal">index_range</code>.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">idx</code></td>
<td>Objects of type <code class="literal">index</code>.</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table></div>
</div>
<br class="table-break"><div class="table">
<a name="idp424032608"></a><p class="title"><b>Table&#160;27.9.&#160;Associated Types</b></p>
<div class="table-contents"><table class="table" summary="Associated Types">
<colgroup>
<col>
<col>
</colgroup>
<thead><tr>
<th>Type</th>
<th>Description</th>
</tr></thead>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">index</code></td>
<td>This is a signed integral type. It is used to
specify degenerate dimensions.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">size_type</code></td>
<td>This is an unsigned integral type. It is used to
report the size of the range an <code class="literal">index_range</code> 
represents.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<code class="literal">template gen_type::&lt;Dims,Ranges&gt;::type</code>
</td>
<td>This type generator names the result of 
<code class="literal">Dims</code> chained calls to
<code class="literal">index_gen::operator[]</code>.  The
<code class="literal">Ranges</code> parameter is determined by the number of
degenerate ranges specified (i.e. calls to
<code class="literal">operator[](index)</code>). Note that  
<code class="computeroutput">index_gen</code> and
<code class="computeroutput">gen_type&lt;0,0&gt;::type</code> are the same type.</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table></div>
</div>
<br class="table-break"><div class="table">
<a name="idp424046208"></a><p class="title"><b>Table&#160;27.10.&#160;Valid Expressions</b></p>
<div class="table-contents"><table class="table" summary="Valid Expressions">
<colgroup>
<col>
<col>
<col>
</colgroup>
<thead><tr>
<th>Expression</th>
<th>Return type</th>
<th>Semantics</th>
</tr></thead>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">index_gen()</code></td>
<td><code class="literal">gen_type&lt;0,0&gt;::type</code></td>
<td>This constructs an <code class="literal">index_gen</code>
object. This object can then be used to generate tuples of
<code class="literal">index_range</code> values.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">x[i]</code></td>
<td>
<code class="literal">gen_type&lt;Dims+1,Ranges+1&gt;::type</code>
</td>
<td>Returns a new object containing all previous
<code class="computeroutput">index_range</code> objects in addition to
<code class="literal">i.</code> Chained calls to
<code class="function">operator[]</code> are the means by which
<code class="computeroutput">index_range</code> objects are aggregated.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code class="literal">x[idx]</code></td>
<td>
<code class="literal">gen_type&lt;Dims,Ranges+1&gt;::type</code>
</td>
<td>Returns a new object containing all previous
<code class="computeroutput">index_range</code> objects in addition to a degenerate
range, <code class="literal">index_range(idx,idx).</code> Note that this is NOT
equivalent to <code class="literal">x[index_range(idx,idx)].</code>, which will
return an object of type
<code class="literal">gen_type&lt;Dims+1,Ranges+1&gt;::type</code>.
</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table></div>
</div>
<br class="table-break">
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect2">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="idp424065328"></a>Models</h3></div></div></div>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" style="list-style-type: disc; ">
<li class="listitem"><code class="literal">multi_array</code></li>
<li class="listitem"><code class="literal">multi_array_ref</code></li>
<li class="listitem"><code class="literal">const_multi_array_ref</code></li>
<li class="listitem"><code class="literal">template array_view&lt;Dims&gt;::type</code></li>
<li class="listitem"><code class="literal">template const_array_view&lt;Dims&gt;::type</code></li>
<li class="listitem"><code class="literal">template subarray&lt;Dims&gt;::type</code></li>
<li class="listitem"><code class="literal">template const_subarray&lt;Dims&gt;::type</code></li>
</ul></div>
</div>
</div>
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<td align="right"><div class="copyright-footer">Copyright &#169; 2002 The Trustees of Indiana University</div></td>
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