path: root/mm/mincore.c
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2013-02-24swap: make each swap partition have one address_spaceShaohua Li1-2/+3
When I use several fast SSD to do swap, swapper_space.tree_lock is heavily contended. This makes each swap partition have one address_space to reduce the lock contention. There is an array of address_space for swap. The swap entry type is the index to the array. In my test with 3 SSD, this increases the swapout throughput 20%. [ revert unneeded change to __add_to_swap_cache] Signed-off-by: Shaohua Li <> Cc: Hugh Dickins <> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <> Acked-by: Minchan Kim <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2012-03-22mm: thp: fix pmd_bad() triggering in code paths holding mmap_sem read modeAndrea Arcangeli1-1/+1
In some cases it may happen that pmd_none_or_clear_bad() is called with the mmap_sem hold in read mode. In those cases the huge page faults can allocate hugepmds under pmd_none_or_clear_bad() and that can trigger a false positive from pmd_bad() that will not like to see a pmd materializing as trans huge. It's not khugepaged causing the problem, khugepaged holds the mmap_sem in write mode (and all those sites must hold the mmap_sem in read mode to prevent pagetables to go away from under them, during code review it seems vm86 mode on 32bit kernels requires that too unless it's restricted to 1 thread per process or UP builds). The race is only with the huge pagefaults that can convert a pmd_none() into a pmd_trans_huge(). Effectively all these pmd_none_or_clear_bad() sites running with mmap_sem in read mode are somewhat speculative with the page faults, and the result is always undefined when they run simultaneously. This is probably why it wasn't common to run into this. For example if the madvise(MADV_DONTNEED) runs zap_page_range() shortly before the page fault, the hugepage will not be zapped, if the page fault runs first it will be zapped. Altering pmd_bad() not to error out if it finds hugepmds won't be enough to fix this, because zap_pmd_range would then proceed to call zap_pte_range (which would be incorrect if the pmd become a pmd_trans_huge()). The simplest way to fix this is to read the pmd in the local stack (regardless of what we read, no need of actual CPU barriers, only compiler barrier needed), and be sure it is not changing under the code that computes its value. Even if the real pmd is changing under the value we hold on the stack, we don't care. If we actually end up in zap_pte_range it means the pmd was not none already and it was not huge, and it can't become huge from under us (khugepaged locking explained above). All we need is to enforce that there is no way anymore that in a code path like below, pmd_trans_huge can be false, but pmd_none_or_clear_bad can run into a hugepmd. The overhead of a barrier() is just a compiler tweak and should not be measurable (I only added it for THP builds). I don't exclude different compiler versions may have prevented the race too by caching the value of *pmd on the stack (that hasn't been verified, but it wouldn't be impossible considering pmd_none_or_clear_bad, pmd_bad, pmd_trans_huge, pmd_none are all inlines and there's no external function called in between pmd_trans_huge and pmd_none_or_clear_bad). if (pmd_trans_huge(*pmd)) { if (next-addr != HPAGE_PMD_SIZE) { VM_BUG_ON(!rwsem_is_locked(&tlb->mm->mmap_sem)); split_huge_page_pmd(vma->vm_mm, pmd); } else if (zap_huge_pmd(tlb, vma, pmd, addr)) continue; /* fall through */ } if (pmd_none_or_clear_bad(pmd)) Because this race condition could be exercised without special privileges this was reported in CVE-2012-1179. The race was identified and fully explained by Ulrich who debugged it. I'm quoting his accurate explanation below, for reference. ====== start quote ======= mapcount 0 page_mapcount 1 kernel BUG at mm/huge_memory.c:1384! At some point prior to the panic, a "bad pmd ..." message similar to the following is logged on the console: mm/memory.c:145: bad pmd ffff8800376e1f98(80000000314000e7). The "bad pmd ..." message is logged by pmd_clear_bad() before it clears the page's PMD table entry. 143 void pmd_clear_bad(pmd_t *pmd) 144 { -> 145 pmd_ERROR(*pmd); 146 pmd_clear(pmd); 147 } After the PMD table entry has been cleared, there is an inconsistency between the actual number of PMD table entries that are mapping the page and the page's map count (_mapcount field in struct page). When the page is subsequently reclaimed, __split_huge_page() detects this inconsistency. 1381 if (mapcount != page_mapcount(page)) 1382 printk(KERN_ERR "mapcount %d page_mapcount %d\n", 1383 mapcount, page_mapcount(page)); -> 1384 BUG_ON(mapcount != page_mapcount(page)); The root cause of the problem is a race of two threads in a multithreaded process. Thread B incurs a page fault on a virtual address that has never been accessed (PMD entry is zero) while Thread A is executing an madvise() system call on a virtual address within the same 2 MB (huge page) range. virtual address space .---------------------. | | | | .-|---------------------| | | | | | |<-- B(fault) | | | 2 MB | |/////////////////////|-. huge < |/////////////////////| > A(range) page | |/////////////////////|-' | | | | | | '-|---------------------| | | | | '---------------------' - Thread A is executing an madvise(..., MADV_DONTNEED) system call on the virtual address range "A(range)" shown in the picture. sys_madvise // Acquire the semaphore in shared mode. down_read(&current->mm->mmap_sem) ... madvise_vma switch (behavior) case MADV_DONTNEED: madvise_dontneed zap_page_range unmap_vmas unmap_page_range zap_pud_range zap_pmd_range // // Assume that this huge page has never been accessed. // I.e. content of the PMD entry is zero (not mapped). // if (pmd_trans_huge(*pmd)) { // We don't get here due to the above assumption. } // // Assume that Thread B incurred a page fault and .---------> // sneaks in here as shown below. | // | if (pmd_none_or_clear_bad(pmd)) | { | if (unlikely(pmd_bad(*pmd))) | pmd_clear_bad | { | pmd_ERROR | // Log "bad pmd ..." message here. | pmd_clear | // Clear the page's PMD entry. | // Thread B incremented the map count | // in page_add_new_anon_rmap(), but | // now the page is no longer mapped | // by a PMD entry (-> inconsistency). | } | } | v - Thread B is handling a page fault on virtual address "B(fault)" shown in the picture. ... do_page_fault __do_page_fault // Acquire the semaphore in shared mode. down_read_trylock(&mm->mmap_sem) ... handle_mm_fault if (pmd_none(*pmd) && transparent_hugepage_enabled(vma)) // We get here due to the above assumption (PMD entry is zero). do_huge_pmd_anonymous_page alloc_hugepage_vma // Allocate a new transparent huge page here. ... __do_huge_pmd_anonymous_page ... spin_lock(&mm->page_table_lock) ... page_add_new_anon_rmap // Here we increment the page's map count (starts at -1). atomic_set(&page->_mapcount, 0) set_pmd_at // Here we set the page's PMD entry which will be cleared // when Thread A calls pmd_clear_bad(). ... spin_unlock(&mm->page_table_lock) The mmap_sem does not prevent the race because both threads are acquiring it in shared mode (down_read). Thread B holds the page_table_lock while the page's map count and PMD table entry are updated. However, Thread A does not synchronize on that lock. ====== end quote ======= [ checkpatch fixes] Reported-by: Ulrich Obergfell <> Signed-off-by: Andrea Arcangeli <> Acked-by: Johannes Weiner <> Cc: Mel Gorman <> Cc: Hugh Dickins <> Cc: Dave Jones <> Acked-by: Larry Woodman <> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <> Cc: <> [2.6.38+] Cc: Mark Salter <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2011-08-04mm: clarify the radix_tree exceptional casesHugh Dickins1-0/+1
Make the radix_tree exceptional cases, mostly in filemap.c, clearer. It's hard to devise a suitable snappy name that illuminates the use by shmem/tmpfs for swap, while keeping filemap/pagecache/radix_tree generality. And akpm points out that /* radix_tree_deref_retry(page) */ comments look like calls that have been commented out for unknown reason. Skirt the naming difficulty by rearranging these blocks to handle the transient radix_tree_deref_retry(page) case first; then just explain the remaining shmem/tmpfs swap case in a comment. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2011-08-04mm: a few small updates for radix-swapHugh Dickins1-4/+6
Remove PageSwapBacked (!page_is_file_cache) cases from add_to_page_cache_locked() and add_to_page_cache_lru(): those pages now go through shmem_add_to_page_cache(). Remove a comment on maximum tmpfs size from fsstack_copy_inode_size(), and add a comment on swap entries to invalidate_mapping_pages(). And mincore_page() uses find_get_page() on what might be shmem or a tmpfs file: allow for a radix_tree_exceptional_entry(), and proceed to find_get_page() on swapper_space if so (oh, swapper_space needs #ifdef). Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2011-01-14thp: mincore transparent hugepage supportJohannes Weiner1-1/+7
Handle transparent huge page pmd entries natively instead of splitting them into subpages. Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <> Signed-off-by: Andrea Arcangeli <> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2011-01-14thp: split_huge_page_mm/vmaAndrea Arcangeli1-0/+1
split_huge_page_pmd compat code. Each one of those would need to be expanded to hundred of lines of complex code without a fully reliable split_huge_page_pmd design. Signed-off-by: Andrea Arcangeli <> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <> Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2010-05-25mincore: do nested page table walksJohannes Weiner1-17/+58
Do page table walks with the well-known nested loops we use in several other places already. This avoids doing full page table walks after every pte range and also allows to handle unmapped areas bigger than one pte range in one go. Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <> Cc: Naoya Horiguchi <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2010-05-25mincore: pass ranges as start,end address pairsJohannes Weiner1-30/+27
Instead of passing a start address and a number of pages into the helper functions, convert them to use a start and an end address. Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <> Cc: Naoya Horiguchi <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2010-05-25mincore: break do_mincore() into logical piecesJohannes Weiner1-74/+97
Split out functions to handle hugetlb ranges, pte ranges and unmapped ranges, to improve readability but also to prepare the file structure for nested page table walks. No semantic changes intended. Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <> Cc: Naoya Horiguchi <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2010-05-25mincore: cleanupsJohannes Weiner1-49/+27
This fixes some minor issues that bugged me while going over the code: o adjust argument order of do_mincore() to match the syscall o simplify range length calculation o drop superfluous shift in huge tlb calculation, address is page aligned o drop dead nr_huge calculation o check pte_none() before pte_present() o comment and whitespace fixes No semantic changes intended. Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <> Cc: Naoya Horiguchi <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2010-03-30include cleanup: Update gfp.h and slab.h includes to prepare for breaking ↵Tejun Heo1-1/+1
implicit slab.h inclusion from percpu.h percpu.h is included by sched.h and module.h and thus ends up being included when building most .c files. percpu.h includes slab.h which in turn includes gfp.h making everything defined by the two files universally available and complicating inclusion dependencies. percpu.h -> slab.h dependency is about to be removed. Prepare for this change by updating users of gfp and slab facilities include those headers directly instead of assuming availability. As this conversion needs to touch large number of source files, the following script is used as the basis of conversion. The script does the followings. * Scan files for gfp and slab usages and update includes such that only the necessary includes are there. ie. if only gfp is used, gfp.h, if slab is used, slab.h. * When the script inserts a new include, it looks at the include blocks and try to put the new include such that its order conforms to its surrounding. It's put in the include block which contains core kernel includes, in the same order that the rest are ordered - alphabetical, Christmas tree, rev-Xmas-tree or at the end if there doesn't seem to be any matching order. * If the script can't find a place to put a new include (mostly because the file doesn't have fitting include block), it prints out an error message indicating which .h file needs to be added to the file. The conversion was done in the following steps. 1. The initial automatic conversion of all .c files updated slightly over 4000 files, deleting around 700 includes and adding ~480 gfp.h and ~3000 slab.h inclusions. The script emitted errors for ~400 files. 2. Each error was manually checked. Some didn't need the inclusion, some needed manual addition while adding it to implementation .h or embedding .c file was more appropriate for others. This step added inclusions to around 150 files. 3. The script was run again and the output was compared to the edits from #2 to make sure no file was left behind. 4. Several build tests were done and a couple of problems were fixed. e.g. lib/decompress_*.c used malloc/free() wrappers around slab APIs requiring slab.h to be added manually. 5. The script was run on all .h files but without automatically editing them as sprinkling gfp.h and slab.h inclusions around .h files could easily lead to inclusion dependency hell. Most gfp.h inclusion directives were ignored as stuff from gfp.h was usually wildly available and often used in preprocessor macros. Each slab.h inclusion directive was examined and added manually as necessary. 6. percpu.h was updated not to include slab.h. 7. Build test were done on the following configurations and failures were fixed. CONFIG_GCOV_KERNEL was turned off for all tests (as my distributed build env didn't work with gcov compiles) and a few more options had to be turned off depending on archs to make things build (like ipr on powerpc/64 which failed due to missing writeq). * x86 and x86_64 UP and SMP allmodconfig and a custom test config. * powerpc and powerpc64 SMP allmodconfig * sparc and sparc64 SMP allmodconfig * ia64 SMP allmodconfig * s390 SMP allmodconfig * alpha SMP allmodconfig * um on x86_64 SMP allmodconfig 8. percpu.h modifications were reverted so that it could be applied as a separate patch and serve as bisection point. Given the fact that I had only a couple of failures from tests on step 6, I'm fairly confident about the coverage of this conversion patch. If there is a breakage, it's likely to be something in one of the arch headers which should be easily discoverable easily on most builds of the specific arch. Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <> Guess-its-ok-by: Christoph Lameter <> Cc: Ingo Molnar <> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <>
2009-12-15mm: hugetlb: fix hugepage memory leak in mincore()Naoya Horiguchi1-0/+37
Most callers of pmd_none_or_clear_bad() check whether the target page is in a hugepage or not, but mincore() and walk_page_range() do not check it. So if we use mincore() on a hugepage on x86 machine, the hugepage memory is leaked as shown below. This patch fixes it by extending mincore() system call to support hugepages. Details ======= My test program (leak_mincore) works as follows: - creat() and mmap() a file on hugetlbfs (file size is 200MB == 100 hugepages,) - read()/write() something on it, - call mincore() for first ten pages and printf() the values of *vec - munmap() and unlink() the file on hugetlbfs Without my patch ---------------- $ cat /proc/meminfo| grep "HugePage" HugePages_Total: 1000 HugePages_Free: 1000 HugePages_Rsvd: 0 HugePages_Surp: 0 $ ./leak_mincore vec[0] 0 vec[1] 0 vec[2] 0 vec[3] 0 vec[4] 0 vec[5] 0 vec[6] 0 vec[7] 0 vec[8] 0 vec[9] 0 $ cat /proc/meminfo |grep "HugePage" HugePages_Total: 1000 HugePages_Free: 999 HugePages_Rsvd: 0 HugePages_Surp: 0 $ ls /hugetlbfs/ $ Return values in *vec from mincore() are set to 0, while the hugepage should be in memory, and 1 hugepage is still accounted as used while there is no file on hugetlbfs. With my patch ------------- $ cat /proc/meminfo| grep "HugePage" HugePages_Total: 1000 HugePages_Free: 1000 HugePages_Rsvd: 0 HugePages_Surp: 0 $ ./leak_mincore vec[0] 1 vec[1] 1 vec[2] 1 vec[3] 1 vec[4] 1 vec[5] 1 vec[6] 1 vec[7] 1 vec[8] 1 vec[9] 1 $ cat /proc/meminfo |grep "HugePage" HugePages_Total: 1000 HugePages_Free: 1000 HugePages_Rsvd: 0 HugePages_Surp: 0 $ ls /hugetlbfs/ $ Return value in *vec set to 1 and no memory leaks. [ cleanup] [ build fix] Signed-off-by: Naoya Horiguchi <> Cc: Andi Kleen <> Cc: Wu Fengguang <> Cc: Hugh Dickins <> Cc: Mel Gorman <> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <> Cc: Andy Whitcroft <> Cc: David Rientjes <> Cc: <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2009-01-14[CVE-2009-0029] System call wrappers part 14Heiko Carstens1-2/+2
Signed-off-by: Heiko Carstens <>
2008-04-28mm: remove nopageNick Piggin1-1/+1
Nothing in the tree uses nopage any more. Remove support for it in the core mm code and documentation (and a few stray references to it in comments). Signed-off-by: Nick Piggin <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2007-02-15[PATCH] mincore: vma crossing fixNick Piggin1-2/+10
My mincore also forgot about crossing vmas. Signed-off-by: Nick Piggin <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2007-02-15[PATCH] mincore: fill in results properlyNick Piggin1-0/+5
Paper bag time. Thanks to Randy for noticing that I didn't actually assign 'present' to anything. Unfortunately my original patch passed the few simple test cases I gave it, purely by coincidence. Signed-off-by: Nick Piggin <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2007-02-15[PATCH] mincore: CONFIG_SWAP=n fixNick Piggin1-0/+5
Fix mincore-anon patch to compile with CONFIG_SWAP=n Signed-off-by: Nick Piggin <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2007-02-12[PATCH] mm: mincore anonNick Piggin1-26/+76
Make mincore work for anon mappings, nonlinear, and migration entries. Based on patch from Linus Torvalds <>. Signed-off-by: Nick Piggin <> Acked-by: Hugh Dickins <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2006-12-17[PATCH] sys_mincore: s/max/min/Oleg Nesterov1-1/+1
fix a typo, sys_mincore() needs min(). Signed-off-by: Oleg Nesterov <> Signed-off-by: Linus "I'm a moron" Torvalds <>
2006-12-17Fix up mm/mincore.c error value casesLinus Torvalds1-19/+10
Hugh Dickins correctly points out that mincore() is actually _supposed_ to fail on an unmapped hole in the user address space, rather than return valid ("empty") information about the hole. This just simplifies the problem further (I had been misled by our previous confusing and complicated way of doing mincore()). Also, in the unlikely situation that we can't allocate a temporary kernel buffer, we should actually return EAGAIN, not ENOMEM, to keep the "unmapped hole" and "allocation failure" error cases separate. Finally, add a comment about our stupid historical lack of support for anonymous mappings. I'll fix that if somebody reminds me after 2.6.20 is out. Acked-by: Hugh Dickins <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2006-12-16Fix incorrect user space access locking in mincore()Linus Torvalds1-104/+86
Doug Chapman noticed that mincore() will doa "copy_to_user()" of the result while holding the mmap semaphore for reading, which is a big no-no. While a recursive read-lock on a semaphore in the case of a page fault happens to work, we don't actually allow them due to deadlock schenarios with writers due to fairness issues. Doug and Marcel sent in a patch to fix it, but I decided to just rewrite the mess instead - not just fixing the locking problem, but making the code smaller and (imho) much easier to understand. Cc: Doug Chapman <> Cc: Marcel Holtmann <> Cc: Hugh Dickins <> Cc: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2005-04-19[PATCH] freepgt: sys_mincore ignore FIRST_USER_PGD_NRHugh Dickins1-3/+0
Remove use of FIRST_USER_PGD_NR from sys_mincore: it's inconsistent (no other syscall refers to it), unnecessary (sys_mincore loops over vmas further down) and incorrect (misses user addresses in ARM's first pgd). Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2005-04-16Linux-2.6.12-rc2v2.6.12-rc2Linus Torvalds1-0/+191
Initial git repository build. I'm not bothering with the full history, even though we have it. We can create a separate "historical" git archive of that later if we want to, and in the meantime it's about 3.2GB when imported into git - space that would just make the early git days unnecessarily complicated, when we don't have a lot of good infrastructure for it. Let it rip!